The Factors Associated with Persistent Smoking in Adolescents

Main Article Content

Jintara Meetawon
Komsan Kiatrungrit
Sirichai Hongsanguansri
Vasin Pipattanachat



 Objective: To study the prevalence of ever smoking and persistent smoking among Thai students in the high school level as well as factors associated with those behaviours.

Methodology: This study was a cross-sectional survey in students in Mathayomsuksa 1-6 under supervision of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. The research instrument was the questionnaire to investigate: 1) personal data; 2) smoking; 3) nicotine addiction level; 4) self-esteem; 5) depression level; and 6) attachment with parents. Data was analysed by descriptive and analytical statistics (chi-square test, ANOVA, t-test, and Multiple Regression Analysis).

Results: From the sample consisting of 1,014 students, 108 out of them were the participants who ever smoked (10.61%) while 29 out of them were the persistent smokers (2.85%). The risk factors associated with ever smoking behavior were: achieving the GPA less than or equal to 2.00 (OR (CI) = 29.2 (1.52 – 5.62)), being induced by friends to smoke (OR (CI) = 3.93 (2.23 – 6.92)), having close friends who smoked (OR (CI) = 5.42 (3.20-9.18)), percept that getting cigarettes to smoke is easy (OR (CI) = 3.19 (1.74-5.84)), and having high depression scores (OR (CI) = 1.06 (1.03-1.10)). However, the protective factor against smoking was the high scores of attachment with parents in term of trust (OR (CI) = 0.09 (0.82 – 0.99)). The only risk factor of persistent smoking was their parents’ acceptance in smoking (OR (CI) = 5.64 (1.67-19.60)).

Conclusion: The persistent smokers had certain different risk factors from the participants who ever smoked, that is, the parents’ concern and disapproval of smoking were the factors preventing students from the persistent smoking. However, the factors related to smoking initiation were also important to prevent the initiation of smoking, which may take effect to health in the long term, even a short-period smoking.

Keywords: adolescence, attachment with parents, self-esteem, smoking, depression

Article Details

How to Cite
Meetawon, J., Kiatrungrit, K. ., Hongsanguansri, S. ., & Pipattanachat, V. . (2022). The Factors Associated with Persistent Smoking in Adolescents. Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand, 67(1), 21–34. Retrieved from
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