Correlation between Self-esteem and Parenting Style in Adolescents with ADHD

  • Panisa Phan-ubon Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University
  • Tikumporn Hosiri Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University
  • Suporn Apinuntavech Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University
Keywords: ADHD; Adolescents; Self-esteem; Parenting style


Objective : To study the correlation between level of self-esteem and parenting style in
adolescents with Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Methodology : A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the Child and
Adolescent Psychiatry Outpatient Unit, Siriraj hospital. One hundred and three
participants with ADHD, aged 12-18 years, completed 3 self-report questionnaires,
including demographic data, the Pictorial Thai Self-esteem Scale and parenting style
rating scale. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, One-way ANOVA followed
by Post-Hoc multiple comparisons with Bonferroni (p < 0.05).
Results : Sixty-seven participants (65%) had a high level of self-esteem, followed by a
moderate level (34%), and a low level (1%). Fifty-three participants (51.5%) were
categorized into 4 parenting styles: 39.6% authoritative, 22.7% permissive, 20.8%
neglect and 16.9% authoritarian parenting style. Adolescents with different forms of
parenting style had significantly different levels of self-esteem (p = 0.005). The
self-esteem score of adolescents with the authoritative parenting style was significantly
higher than the neglect parenting style (p = 0.01), but did not statistically differ from
authoritarian and permissive parenting styles (p = 0.08 and 1.00, respectively).
Conclusion : Among adolescents with ADHD, the different parenting styles may affect
their self-esteem level. Authoritative parenting style may contribute to promote high
level of self-esteem.


Download data is not yet available.


Visanuyothin T, Pavasuthipaisit C, Wachiradilok P, Arunruang P, Buranasuksakul T. The prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity

disorder in Thailand. Journal of Mental Health of Thailand 2013; 21: 66-75.

Shaywitz B, Fletcher J, Shaywitz S. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Adv Pediatr 1997; 44: 331-67.

Roger C. Client Center Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin; 1951.

Deshpande A, Chhabriya M. Parenting styles and its effects on Adolescents’ self-esteem. Int J Innov Eng Technol 2013; 2(4): 310-5.

Coopersmith S. The antecedents of self-esteem. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press Inc; 1981.

Tahanye-Rashvanlou F, Hejazi E. Maternal and paternal involvement, autonomy support and warmth: predictors of adolescence self-esteem. J Behav Sci 2012; 5: 343-50.

Moghaddam MF, Validad A, Rakhshani T, Assareh M. Child self-esteem and different parenting styles of mothers: a cross-sectional study. Arch Psychiatr Psychother 2017; 19: 37-42.

Mazzone L, Postorino V, Reale L, Guarnera M, Mannino V, Armando M. et al. Self-esteem evaluation in children and adolescents suffering from ADHD. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health 2013; 9: 96-102.

Harpin V, Mazzone L, Raynaud P, Kahle J, Hodgkins P. Long-Term Outcomes of ADHD: A systematic review of Self-Esteem and Social function. J Atten Disord 2016; 20: 295-305.

Finzi-Dottan R, Manor I, Tyano S. ADHD, Temperament, and Parental Style as Predictors of the Child’s Attachment Patterns. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2006; 37: 103-14.

Gau SS, Chang JP. Maternal parenting styles and mother-child relationship among adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Res Dev Disabil 2013; 34: 1581-94.

Lifford KJ, Harold GT, Tharpar A. Parent-child relationships and ADHD symptoms: A longitudinal analysis. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2008; 36: 285-96.

Kurman J, Rothschild YL, Angel R, Katz M. How good am I? Implicit and explicit self-esteem as a function of perceived parenting styles among children with ADHD. J Atten Disord 2018; 22: 1207-17.

Peris TS, Hinshaw SP. Family dynamics and preadolescent girls with ADHD: The relationship between expressed emotion, ADHD symp¬tomatology and comorbid disruptive behavior. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2003; 44: 1177-90.

Srimakudphun N. The correlation between self-esteem and parenting styles of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder attending child psychiatric outpatient unit of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital [dissertation]. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University; 2007.

Khemjinda T, Wacharasindhu A. Self-esteem and related factors of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at Child Psychiatric Unit of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Chula Med J 2016; 60: 535-44.

Phattharayuttawat S, Ngamthipwatthana T, Pitiyawaranun B. The Development of the Pictorial Thai Self-Esteem Scale (PTSS). J Clin Psychol 2011; 42: 41-53.

Wongkongdej W. Attitude toward help-seeking and self-regulated learning of secondary school students with different parenting styles [dissertation]. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University; 2004.

Baumrind D. Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monograph 1971; 4: 1-103.

Chittayasothorn D. Diana Baumrind’s parenting styles. University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce Journal Humanities and Social Sciences 2009; 29: 173-87.

Hosiri T, Wannasewok K, Chaiharn P, Phattharayuttawat S, Manussirivithaya V, Ngamthipwatthana T. Parenting Styles and Hardiness of Students in a Thai Military Academy. J Med Assoc Thai 2018; 101 (Suppl 1): S19-23.

Frankel F, Cantwell DP, Myatt R, Feinberg DT. Do stimulants improve self-esteem in children with ADHD and peer problems?. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 1999; 9: 184-94.

Hoza B, Pelham WE, Dobbs J, Owens JS, Pillow DR. Do boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have positive illusory self-concept?. J Abnorm Psychol 2002; 111: 268-78.

Gupta PD. Growing up in families. In: Barnes P, ed. Personal, social, and emotional development of children. Oxford: Blackwell; 1995: 83-134.

How to Cite
Phan-ubon, P., Hosiri, T., & Apinuntavech, S. (2020). Correlation between Self-esteem and Parenting Style in Adolescents with ADHD. Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand, 65(1), 37-46. Retrieved from