Prevalence and Associated Factors of Developmental Coordination Disorder among Patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital
Objective : To study the prevalence and associated factors of developmental coordination disorder among patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital.
Method : Cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on a population group of 100 patients with ADHD, ages range of 6-17 years old at the outpatient unit of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Department of Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai between January 1, 2018 to June 30, 2018. Data collection used as the following; demographic data, SNAP-IV (Swanson, Nolan and Pelham IV questionnaire) (short Form), Child’s Depression Inventory (CDI), and the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOT-2), which is the standard instrument to assess the condition defect in the coordination of muscle or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). The data analysis was performed by frequency, percentage, average, and standard deviation. The associated factors were calculated by using the chi-square and student t-test. Finally, the statistically significant variables were taken to logistic regression to predict the occurrence of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD).
Result : From the 85 patients with ADHD whose participated in this study, 85.9% of subjects were male. The average age of subjects was 9 years old (SD=2.8), with 35.3% (n=30) of subjects meeting the criteria for DCD. The significant variables related to DCD were the scores of SNAP-IV in hyperactivity /impulsivity subtype (t=2.50, p<0.1) and inattention subtype (t=1.79, p<0.08), and also body mass index (BMI) (t=3.66, p<0.1). When applying all 3 variables with logistic regression analysis, only the body mass index (BMI) was significant contributors for DCD.
Conclusion : Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a common co-morbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Body mass index (BMI) is associated with motor proficiency problems.
Polanczyk G, de Lima MS, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164: 942-8.
Visanuyothin T, Pavasuthipaisit C, Wachiradilok P, Arunruang P, Buranasuksakul T. The prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Thailand. Journal of Mental Health of Thailand 2013; 21: 66-75.
Walton JN, Ellis E, Court SD. Clumsy children: developmental apraxia and agnosia. Brain 1962; 85: 603-12.
Polatajko H, Fox M, Missiuna C. An international consensus on children with developmental coordination disorder. Can J Occup Ther 1995; 62: 3-6.
Zwicker JG, Missiuna C, Harris SR, Boyd LA. Developmental coordination disorder: a review and update. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2012; 16: 573-81.
Magalhaes LC, Missiuna C, Wong S. Terminology used in research reports of developmental coordination disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol 2006; 48: 937-41.
Gaines R, Missiuna C, Egan M, McLean J. Educational outreach and collaborative care enhances physician’s perceived knowledge about Developmental Coordination Disorder. BMC Health Serv Res 2008; 8: 21.
Piek JP, Rigoli D, Pearsall-Jones JG, Martin NC, Hay DA, Bennett KS, et al. Depressive symptomatology in child and adolescent twins with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or developmental coordination disorder. Twin Res Hum Genet 2007; 10: 587-96.
Rasmussen P, Gillberg C. Natural outcome of ADHD with developmental coordination disorder at age 22 years: a controlled, longitudinal, community-based study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2000; 39: 1424-31.
Daniel WW. Biostatistics a foundation for analysis in the health sciences. 7th ed. New York: Wiley 1999.
Naing L, Winn T, Rusli B. Practical issues in calculating the sample size for prevalence studies. Arch Orofac Sci 2006; 1: 9-14.
Pityaratstian N, Booranasuksakul T, Juengsiragulwit D, Benyakorn S. ADHD Screening Properties of the Thai Version of Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham IV Scale (SNAP-IV) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand 2014; 59: 97-110.
Trangkasombat U, Likanapichitkul D. The Children’s Depression Inventory as a screen for depression in Thai children. J Med Assoc Thai 1997; 80: 491-9.
Deitz JC, Kartin D, Kopp K. Review of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2). Phys Occup Ther Pediatr 2007; 27: 87-102.
Watemberg N, Waiserberg N, Zuk L, Lerman- Sagie T. Developmental coordination disorder in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and physical therapy intervention. Dev Med Child Neurol 2007; 49: 920-5.
Gillberg C. Deficits in attention, motor control, and perception: a brief review. Arch Dis Child 2003;88:904-10.
Missiuna C, Gaines R, McLean J, Delaat D, Egan M, Soucie H. Description of children identified by physicians as having developmental coordination disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol 2008; 50: 839-44.
Kadesjo B, Gillberg C. Developmental coordination disorder in Swedish 7-year-old children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1999; 38: 820-8.
Cairney J, Hay JA, Faught BE, Hawes R. Developmental coordination disorder and overweight and obesity in children aged 9-14 y. Int J Obes (Lond) 2005; 29: 369-72.
Fliers EA, Buitelaar JK, Maras A, Bul K, Hohle E, Faraone SV, et al. ADHD is a risk factor for overweight and obesity in children. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2013; 34: 566-74.
Missiuna C, Moll S, King G, Stewart D, Macdonald K. Life experiences of young adults who have coordination difficulties. Can J Occup Ther 2008; 75: 157-66.