Vitamin D in Commonly Consumed Freshwater and Marine Fish
Keywords:vitamin D, freshwater fish, marine fish
Insufficiency/deficiency of vitamin D has been a worldwide health problem. Fish has been used as a protein source among Thai population, but data on vitamin D content of fish in Thailand is not available. This study aimed to generate a database of vitamin D in freshwater and marine fish and determine the good sources of vitamin D for consumption. Ten species of freshwater (5 species) and marine (5 species) fish which were commonly consumed in Thailand were studied. Three wholesale markets were selected and the samples came from three retail shops in each market. The fish were prepared by common household practices. The edible portion of raw fish was homogenized, freeze-dried, re-homogenized, and packed in aluminum foil bags. The samples were kept at -20oC until analysis of moisture and vitamin D. Vitamin D2 and D3 were determined by HPLC method (AOAC, 2016, method no. 995.05). The results indicated that vitamin D3 was the major form (82-100%) of vitamin D in the studied fish. Common silver barb, red Nile tilapia, and Nile tilapia contained high levels of vitamin D, with 48.5, 31.0, and 19.8 µg per 100g fresh weight (FW), respectively. Two species of freshwater fish - walking catfish and striped snake-head fish contained low levels of vitamin D, 2.4 and 5.7 µg per 100g FW, respectively. All raw marine fish contained low levels of vitamin D, ranging from 2.9 to 4.7 µg per 100g FW. Fish that lived in the limnetic zone exhibited high levels of vitamin D. Consuming one serving (55 g or 3-4 tbsp.) of common silver barb, red Nile tilapia, and Nile tilapia provides 11-30 µg of vitamin D, contributing 218-534% of Thai Recommended Daily Intake. Consuming fish high in vitamin D and exposing oneself to sunlight regularly could reduce or prevent the incidence of vitamin D deficiency.
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