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Background: Staff and students may have COVID-19 in the university without showing symptoms. They may be carriers who spread to others. Investigating the causal relationships between health beliefs and preventive behaviors of COVID-19 is helpful in developing a guideline to promote preventive behaviors of COVID-19 among staff and students.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to examine 1) the level of health beliefs and preventive behaviors of COVID-19, 2) the relationships between health beliefs and preventive behaviors of COVID-19, and 3) the factors that predict health beliefs of prevention behaviors of COVID-19 among staff and students.
Methods: This was a correlational study. Data were collected from two samples, including 320 staff and 400 students. The samples assessed the health belief and health behavior questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple regression.
Results: 1) The staff and students had the overall level of health beliefs and preventive behaviors from COVID-19 at a high level, 2) Five health beliefs of the staff were related to preventive behaviors from COVID-19 but the health belief about perceptions of obstacles of students was not related, and 3) the staff had perceptions of susceptibility, perceptions of severity, and health motivation that predicted preventive behaviors from COVID-19 (29.10%). In addition, the students had both perceptions of susceptibility and health motivation that predicted preventive behaviors from COVID-19 (20.70%).
Conclusions: Health belief measures should be established to increase the level of COVID-19 preventive behaviors among staff and students, especially perceptions of susceptibility and health motivation.
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