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Cryptolepis buchanani Roem.&Schult. (Thao-en-on), a herbal medicinal plant to a member in the Asclepiadaceae family, has been used in Thai traditional medicine as the treatment of muscle and tendon pains by decoction. The previous studies reported that C. buchanani showed several pharmacological activities. In vitro study, the methanol crude extract of C. buchanani stem (12.5, 25, and 50 g/mL) showed the chondroprotective activity in cartilage degradation porcrine induced inflammation by interleukin-1 . In vivo study, the methanol crude extract of C. buchanani stem (60, 125, and 250 mg/kg) showed the analgesic activity against acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice and at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg showed the anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat. For the ethanol crude extract of stem (1, 5, 50, and 100 g/mL) showed the anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of tumor necrosis factor- production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human leukemia monocytic THP-1 cell. Moreover, the ethanol crude extract of C. buchanani leaves (250, and 500 mg/kg) showed the hepatoprotective activity in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat. The aqueous crude extract of C. buchanani leaves showed the anti-bacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumonia with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values are 1, and 2 g/L, respectively. Buchananine, an alkaloid which found in the stem, is the major active compound of C. buchanani. However, there are still no scientific evidences to support the pharmacological activities of the buchananine. Therefore, this review reports the pharmacological activities of C. buchanani for further intensive study, especially the effect of buchananine and other compounds from C. buchanani should be proved for their potentials to understand the mechanism of pharmacological actions of C. buchanani.
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