Chemical Profiling and Antimicrobial Activities against Oral Pathogens of Ocimum spp. Essential Oils

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Jiraporn Sodachan
Bunleu Sungthong
Sakulrat Rattanakiat


Introduction: Recently, oral deceases are one of the most important problems in Thailand. These are generally treated by antibiotics which lead to antibiotics resistance. The uses of herbs to control oral pathogens are one of the alternative choices of treatment. The objectives of the research were to identify major chemical constituents of plants from Ocimum spp.; namely, white holy basil, purple holy basil and purple Thai basil. In addition, inhibitory and bactericidal activities against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus; and inhibitory and fungicidal activities against Candida albicans were also investigated. Method: Essential oils were extracted by means of water distillation. The resulting oils were then characterized by GC-MS. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were tested by agar disk diffusion method. Moreover, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal or fungicidal concentrations (MBC or MFC) were determined by broth dilution method. Results: Major chemical constituents of white holy basil and purple holy basil essential oils consisted of methyl eugenol at 54.29% and 51.21% by total area, respectively. While, major chemical constituent of purple Thai basil essential oils was methyl chavicol at 96.70% by total area. The MIC and MBC or MFC of essential oils were determined as followed. White holy basil and purple holy basil expressed the best MIC and MBC or MFC against C. albicans at 1.56 mg/mL and S. pyogenes at 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, purple Thai basil showed the best MIC and MFC against C. albicans at 6.25 mg/mL. Conclusion: White holy basil, purple holy basil and purple Thai basil essential oils exhibited high antimicrobial activities against S. pyogenes and C. albicans; moderate activity against S. mutans, and low activity against S. aureus.


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Pharmaceutical Sciences


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