Study of nutritional values and biological activities of Thai indigenous rice

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Matchima Nammoonnoi
Bungorn Sripanidkulchai
Jirawat Sanitchon
Sarunya Tuntiyasawasdikul


Indigenous rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a traditional rice that is grown locally, but there is still a lack of information on the nutritional value of rice and research supports their benefits beyond eating. Objectives: To study the nutritional values and biological compounds in nine indigenous rice varieties and to study the effect of solvent on the yield of active compounds extraction. Method: The total phenolic compounds and free radical scavenging activity by DPPH assay of nine indigenous rice were determined. Select two variety of rice to macerate in different solvents including distilled water, 50% ethanol, 50% ethanol with 0.1% Hhydrochloric acid, and 99% ethanol. These extracts were determined free radical scavenging activity by DPPH assay, tyrosinase inhibition, and safety on keratinocytes.  Results: All varieties of rice contain a high nutrition in terms of their constituent nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins, fats and fibers. It was also found that these rice has potential as a source of many essential minerals, for example, Neaw Dum Hmong rice is a source of calcium. Maled Fai rice is a source of phosphorus and copper. Tubtim Chumphae Rice is a source of iron. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract in acid condition of Neaw Dum Hmong rice showed the highest amount of total phenolic content (629.27±6.56 mg GAE/g), total flavonoids (463.59±0.83 mg CE/g), total anthocyanins (517.10±9.49 mg/100g), and Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (0.16 mg/g), consistent with their antioxidant activity when using DPPH assay with IC50 of 19.25±0.05 µg/mL. Moreover, it has a potential to inhibit tyrosinase in the range of 0.125-100 µg/mL and showed no skin toxicity on keratinocyte cells in the range of 1-1000 µg/mL. Conclusion: The obtained data show the potential of indigenous rice varieties that they can be used as a component in product development that may have positive effects on health and as an ingredient in cosmeceutical products, leading to an increase in the value of raw materials and further commercialization.


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Pharmaceutical Sciences


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