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Knowledge assessment of patients with diabetes requires a good knowledge scale. Nonetheless, the existing diabetes knowledge tests had a limited number of questions on how to use oral hypoglycemic medications, initial management when complications arise, restricted response options, including scales tested for validity and reliability, particularly in Thai language measurements. Objective: To develop the Diabetes Knowledge Scale (DIAKS) with a validity and reliability test. Methods: The development of questions for the DIAKS was primarily based on a literature review. The measure was examined for its content validity by five experts. It was then tested, initially in 30 patients with diabetes and subsequently in 120 patients. The Kuder-Richardson (KR-20) reliability, concurrent validity, and construct validity were examined. Results: The DIAKS had 21 items. The reliability based on KR-20 in 120 patients was 0.721. In the concurrent validity analysis using correlation analysis, diabetes knowledge scores from the measure were found to be significantly negatively associated with the most recent FPG (fasting plasma glucose) and HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) (r = -0.31, P <0.001 and r = -0.30, P = 0.001, respectively). Multiple regression analysis also showed a significant negative relationship between the diabetes knowledge scores from the scale and the most recent FPG and HbA1c (B = -4.08, P = 0.011 and B = -0.16, P = 0.016, respectively) when controlling for gender, education level, and length of diabetes. Regarding to construct validity, the well-controlled group (FPG < 130 mg/dl or HbA1C < 7%) had significantly higher diabetes knowledge scores than the poorly-controlled group (FPG > 130 mg/dl or HbA1C > 7%) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The DIAKS has an acceptable level of reliability and a good level of validity. As a result, this scale serves as an alternative instrument for evaluating diabetes knowledge among diabetic patients.
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