In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of Barleria lupulina Lindl. extract -

Main Article Content

Santi Phosri
Sukanya Chaipayang
Yanisa Laoonguthai


Barleria lupulinal is a medicinal plant, according to traditional medicine recipes, with various properties. The aim of this research was to investigate the antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity of Barleria lupulinal extracts. Methods: The aerial parts of Barleria lupulinal were extracted with water, ethanol and methanol, and then the total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was used to assess the antioxidant activity. The cytotoxicity effect was evaluated on human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells by MTT assay. In addition, the toxicity to human red blood cells was estimated by hemolytic activity assay. Results: The total phenolic contents of aqueous, ethanol and methanol extract of Barleria lupulina were 73.89 ± 0.50, 57.83 ± 3.13 and 83.64 ± 0.60 milligram gallic acid/gram extract, respectively. The aqueous extract of Barleria lupulina at concentrations of 31.25 -1,000 µg/mL displayed a DPPH scavenging capacity of 9.86% to 26.00% in a dose-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of Barleria lupulina inhibited free radicals from 10.04% to 18.17%, while the methanolic extract showed antioxidant activity ranging from 5.29% to 23.31%. The result of cytotoxicity test of Barleria lupulinal extract showed non-toxicity or low toxicity on HaCaT and Vero cells. Moreover, the percentage of hemolysis ranged from 3.13% to 2.60% after treatment with aqueous extracts from 31.25 to 1,000 µg/mL. The methanolic extract displayed percentage hemolysis at 3.65% to 10.99%, and ethanolic extracts from 3.96% to 16.92%. The extracts exhibited non-toxicity at low concentrations and low toxicity when increasing to higher concentrations versus the positive control, 1% Triton X-100. Conclusion: The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Barleria lupulinal had antioxidant activity in the DPPH scavenging assay and were non-toxic or had low toxicity to normal cell lines and human red blood cells.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Pharmaceutical Sciences


Agatonovic-Kustrin S, Doyle E, Gegechkori V, Morton DW. High-performance thin-layer chromatography linked with (bio) assays and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as a method for discovery and quantification of bioactive components in native Australian plants. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2020; 184: 113208.

Chaithada P, Supapan J, Supapan J, Rodthuk P, Rodthuk P, Chainarong S, Chainarong S. Total flavonoids, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity from fruits, leaves, twigs and flowers of Mesua ferrea L. Walailak J Sci & Tech 2018; 15(4): 295-304.

Chomnawang MT, Surassmo S, Wongsariya K, Bunyapraphatsara N. Antibacterial activity of Thai medicinal plants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fitoterapia 2009; 80: 102-104.

Gironi B, Kahveci Z, McGill B, Lechner BD, Pagliara S, Metz J, Morresi A, Palombo F, Sassi P, Petrov PG. Effect of DMSO on the mechanical and structural properties of model and biological membranes. Biophys J 2020; 119: 274-286.

Ismail-Suhaimy NW, Gani SSA, Zaidan UH, Halmi MIE, Bawon P. Optimizing conditions for microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of Barleria lupulina Lindl. Plants 2021; 10(4): 682.

Kumari R, Dubey RC. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of Barleria lupulina Lindl. extracts. J Plant Pathol Microbiol 2016; 7(10): 380.

Kumari R, Kumar S, Kumar A, Goel KK. Dubey C. Antibacterial, antioxidant and immuno-modulatory properties in extracts of Barleria lupulina Lindl. BMC Complement Altern Med 2017; 17(1): 484.

Lans C, Harper T, Georges K, Bridgewater E. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters Trinidad. BMC Complement Altern Med 2001; 1: 10.

Lasch P, Boese M, Pacifico A, Diem M. FT-IR spectroscopic investigations of single cells on the subcellular level. Vib Spectrosc 2002; 28: 147-157.

Lee SR, Clardy J, Senger DR, Cao S, Kim KH. Iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides from the aerial part of Barleria lupulina. Rev Bras Farmacogn 2016; 26: 281-284.

Mazumder PM, Paramaguru R, Mohanty A, Sasmal, D. Evaluation of in vitro anticataract activity and aldose reductase potential of Barleria lupulina Lindl. Pharmacologia 2014; 5(5): 172-176.

Moin S, Babu SS, Mahalakshmipriya A. In vitro callus production and antibacterial activity of Barleria lupulina lindl. Asia Pac J Mol Biol Biotechnol 2012; 20: 59-64.

Moosavinejad SM, Madhoushi M, Vakili M, Rasouli D. Evaluation of degradation in chemical compounds of wood in historical buildings using ft-ir and ft-raman vibrational spectroscopy. Maderas, Cienc tecnol 2019; 21(3): 381-392.

Movasaghi Z, Rehman S, Rehman DI. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of biological tissues. Appl Spectrosc Rev 2008; 43: 134-179.

Phosri S, Jangpromma N, Chang LC, Tan GT, Wongwiwatthananukit S, Maijaroen S, Anwised P, Payoungkiattikun W, Klaynongsruang S. Siamese crocodile white blood cell extract inhibits cell proliferation and promotes autophagy in multiple cancer cell lines. J Microbiol Biotechnol 2018; 28(6): 1007-1021.

Rattanakiat, S. Anti-herpes simplex virus type 2 activities of some Thai medicinal plants. Thai J Pharm Sci 2006; 30: 19-27.

Reanmongkol W, Subhadhirasakul S. Antinociceptive effects of Barleria lupulina extracts in mice. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 1997; 19(2): 89-95.

Reanmongkol W, Subhadhirasakul S, Muneemonai K, Nathong K, Rangkla G, Takayama H. Antipyretic activity of Connarus semidecandrus extract in rats. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 2000; 2(2): 191-198.

Salmana A, Sahua RK, Bernshtainb E, Zeliga U, Goldsteinc J, Walfischd S, Argovc S, Mordechai S. Probing cell proliferation in the human colon using vibrational spectroscopy: a novel use of FTIR-microspectroscopy. Vib Spectrosc 2004; 34: 301-308.

Sarmad M, Mahalakshmipriya A, Senthil K. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Barleria lupulina essential oil. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 2012; 18: 101-109.

Satrayavivad J, Suksamran A, Tanasomwong W. The antiinflammatory action of iridoids obtained from Barleria lupulina. Princess Congress I 1987; 26: 10-13.

Senger DR, Hoang MV, Kim KH, Li C, Cao S. Anti-inflammatory activity of Barleria lupulina : Identification of active compounds that activate the Nrf2 cell defense pathway, organize cortical actin, reduce stress fibers, and improve cell junctions in microvascular endothelial cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2016; 193: 397-407.

Suba V, Murugesan T, Arunachalam G, Mandal SC, Saha BP. Anti-diabetic potential of Barleria lupulina extract in rats. Phytomedicine 2004; 11(2-3): 202-205.

Suksamrarn S, Wongkrajang K, Kirtikara K, Suksamrarn A. Iridoid glucosides from the flowers of Barleria lupulina. Planta Med 2003; 69: 877-879.

Wanikiat P, Panthong A, Sujayanon P, Yoosook C, Rossi AG, Reutrakul V. The anti-inflammatory effects and the inhibition of neutrophil responsiveness by Barleria lupulina and Clinacanthus nutans extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 2008; 116(2): 234-244.

Yoosook C, Panpisutchai Y, Chaichana S, Santisuk T, Reutrakul V. Evaluation of anti-HSV-2 activities of Barleria lupulina and Clinacanthus nutans. J Ethnopharmacol 1999; 67(1999): 179-187.

Zavoi S, Fetea F, Ranga F, Pop RM, Baciu A, Socaciu C. Comparative fingerprint and extraction yield of medicinal herb phenolics with hepatoprotective potential, as determined by UV-vis and FT-MIR spectroscopy. Not Bot Horti Agrobo 2011; 39(2): 82-89.

Zelig U, Kapelushnik J, Moreh R, Mordechai S, Nathan I. Diagnosis of Cell Death by Means of Infrared Spectroscopy. Biophys J 2009; 97: 2107-2114.