Types of Activities and Outcomes of Telepharmacy: A Review Article

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Krit Wattanathum
Teerapon Dhippayom
Anjana Fuangchan


Currently, Advances in telecommunication technology have made it possible for the remote delivery of health care services or telemedicine. Telepharmacy is a subset of telemedicine. The objective of this review is to introduce patterns in the activities of telepharmacy services and their outcomes including medication error, efficacy, medication adherence, satisfaction, and economic outcomes in certain countries. Telepharmacy is the delivery of pharmacy services to patients in rural and remote areas via telecommunication technology. It consists of three different patterns including remote-consultation sites, hospital telepharmacy, and automated dispensing machines. Several studies have demonstrated the positive impacts of telepharmacy by reducing the occurrence of and costs associated with medication errors. There were no differences in clinical outcomes in patients with chronic diseases between telepharmacy and usual care service. Improvement in medication adherence was found in patients with hypertension,  hyperlipidemia, and asthma. Additionally, patient and nurse satisfaction increased significantly after the implementation of telepharmacy services.


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