Analysisi of antioxidant vitamins in 30 Thai vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatographic method

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Bungorn Sripanidkulchai
Sudarat Homhual
Chotima Poeknapo


High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was applied to determine four antioxidant vitamins in 30 edible indigenous Thai plants. Plant samples for water-soluble vitamin c analysis were extracted with 6% orthophosphoric acid then injected onto a phenyl column using an isocratic mobile phase. Samples for fat-soluble vitamin determination were firstly extracted with acetone and after saponification the samples were subsequently extracted with hexane/diethyl ether. Then a reverse phase c column with a gradient mobile phase was used. The method validation for standard vitamins revealed linear concentration relationship with the square of correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9997, 0.9987, 0.9998 and 1.0000 for ascorbic acid, retinol, OC-tocopherol and P-carotene, respectively. The accuracy expressed in terms of % Bias was from 2.54 (1.22) to 1.99 (2.23) and -3.99 (0.32) to 1.61 (0.42) for intra- and inter-day assay, respectively. % Coefficients of variation (CVs) were 0.35 (0.43) to 1.41 (0.59) and 0.18 (0.17) to 1.19 (1.36) for intra- and inter-day assay, respectively.  

Among 30 studied plants, ascorbic acid was detected in 20 plants (ranging 2.04-114.89 mg/100g). All plants had 0-carotene (ranging 0.15-6.75 mg/100g). Retinol was found in 12 plants (ranging 0.0033-0.22 mg/100g), whereas OC-tocopherol was found in only 5 plants (ranging 0.02-0.45 mg/100g). The top five plants having high antioxidant vitamin content are Sauropus androgynus Men., Sesbania grandiflora Derv., Moringa oleifera Lam., Connarus semidecandrus Jack., and Momordica charantia Linn. This study supports the claimed beneficial effects for consuming local edible vegetables of the people in the Northeast of Thailand.

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