Main Article Content
This quasi-experimental research aimed to compare the effects of a tai chi and aerobic training program on the muscular strength and balance of the elders. The samples were 66 elders participating in health promotion program at Sirinthorn hospital, Prawet, Bangkok. Then, they were equally divided into two groups, 33 subjects for each group which were the control group and the experimental group. The experimental group was added tai chi to the exercise for 50 minutes daily, 3 times a week, and maintained the routine for 8 weeks. The criterion standard of the fitness test was supported by the department of physical education measuring muscular strength and balance using a single leg stand and foot-to-foot test at the beginning and after 8 weeks of the program. Data were analyzed by mean and standard deviation. The differences in the leg muscular strength and balance were tested by using paired t-test and independent t-test. Data from the interview were analysed using content analysis.
The results showed that 1) the experimental group who received the tai chi and aerobic program had significantly different improvements in muscular strength and balance than the control group at the level of .05, 2) the experimental group had a better quality of life in physical, psycho-emotional, social, and environmental aspects than the control group. In conclusion, the tai Chi and aerobic exercise program was able to improve leg muscular strength and balance, which could reduce the risk of falling. It was also able to raise the quality of life in elderly people.
Chan, S. P., Luk, T. C., & Hong, Y. (2003). Kinematic and electromyographic analysis of the push movement in Tai Chi. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(4), 339-344.
Department of Physical Education, Ministry of Tourism and Sports.(2019). Physical fitness test and benchmark for people aged 60 - 69 years.
Department of Economics and Social Affairs: Population Division. (2015). World population agingreport. United Nation. New York.
Guo, Y., Shi, H., Yu, D., & Qiu, P. (2016). Health benefits of Traditional Chinese sports and Physical activity for Older adult: A Systematic review of evidence. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 5(3), 270–280.
Gyllensten, A. L., Hui-Chan, W. Y., & Tsang, W. N. (2010). Stability limits, single-leg jump, and body awareness in older Tai Chi practitioners. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91(2), 215-220.
Houry, D., Florence, C., Baidwin, G., Stevens, J., & Mcclure, R. (2016). The CDC injury centre’ s response to the growing public health problem of fall among older adults. American Journal of Lifestyle medicine, 10(1), 74-77.
Hu, Y. N., Jung, Y. J., Yu, H. K., Chen, Y. C., Tsai, C. T., & Hu, G. H. (2016). Effect of Tai Chi exercise on fall prevention in older adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. International Journal of Gerontology, 10(3), 131-136.
Huang, Y., & Liu, X. (2015). Improvement of balance control ability and flexibility in the elderly Tai Chi Chuan practitioners: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 60(2), 233-238.
Jiménez-Martín, P. J., Meléndez-Ortega, A., Albers, U., & Schofield, D. (2013). A review of Tai Chi Chuan and parameters related to balance. European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 5(6), 469-475.
Ku, Y. C., Liu, M. E., Tsai, Y. E., Liu, W. C., Lin, W. L., & Tsai, S. J. (2013). Associated factors for falls, recurrent falls, and injurious falls in aged men living in Taiwan veterans homes. International Journal of Gerontoogy, 7(2), 80–84.
Lan, C., Lai, J. S., Chen, S. Y., & Lai, J. S., & Wong, A. M. (2013). Chi Chuan in medicine and health promotion. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Review Article), Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Retrieved from https://www.hindawi.com
Leung, D. K., Chan, C. L., Tsang, W. N., & Tsang, A. J. (2011). Tai Chi as an intervention to improve balance and reduce falls in older adults: A systematic and meta-analytical review. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 17(1), 40-48.
Li, J. X., Xu, D. Q., & Hong, Y. L. (2009). Changes in muscle strength, endurance, and reaction of the lower extremitied with Tai Chi intervention. Journal of Biomechanics, 42, 967- 971.
Mahaprom, T., Monkong, S., & Wongvatunyu, S. (2017). Tai Chi practice and its impact on elderly people’s balance. Thai Journal of Nursing Council, 32(3) 50-65.
National StatisticalOffice. (2018). Report on the 2017 survey of the older persons in Thailand. Retrieved from http://www.nso.go.th
Rogers, C., Larkey, L. K., & Keller, C. A. (2009). Review of clinical trials of Tai Chi and Qigong in older adults. Western Journal of Nursing Researcs, 31(2),245 -279.
Sarapun, A., Sirisopon, N., Kainaka, P., Onsiri, S., Outayanik, B., Threrawachjareanchai, S., & Sukomol, N.(2017). Factors related to a fall prevention behaviors of elderly. Journal of The Royal Thai Army Nurses, 18(supplement), 215 –222.
Soogaroon, S., Palasuwan, A., Suksom, D., & Anugoolpracha, C. (2011). Effects of modified miracle Tai Chi training on health-related physical fitness in the elderly women. The report was part of the research project: Tai Chi training in elderly health promotion. Chulalongkorn University.
Tsang, W. W., & Hui-Chan, C. W. (2004). Effects of 4 - and 8 -wk intensive Tai Chi training on balance control in the elderly. Medicine & Science in Sports Exercis, 36(4), 648 -657.
United Nation. (2017). World population ageing 2017: Highlights–UN ilibrary. Retrieved from https://www.un-ilibrary.org
Wang, S. J., Xu, D. Q., & Li, J. X. (2017). Effect of regular Tai Chi practice and jogging on neuromuscular reaction during lateral postural control in older people. Research in Sports Medicine, 25(1), 111-117.
Wong, A. M. K., & Lan, C. (2008). Tai Chi and balance control. Medicine and Sport Science, 52, 115-123.
Xu, D. Q., Li, J. X., & Hong, Y. L. (2005). Effect of regular Tai Chi and jogging exercise on neuromuscular reaction in older people. Age and Aging, 34, 439 -444.
Xu, D. Q., Hong, Y.L., & Li, J. X., (2008). Tai Chi exercise and muscle strength and endurance in older people. Medicine and Sport Science, 52, 20-29.