Measurement Model of Pain Catastrophizing: Testing Measurement Invariance between Acute and Chronic Pain Groups


  • Yosapon Leaungsomnapa Phrapokklao Nursing College, Chanthaburi, Praboromarajchanok Institute
  • Chuanchom Peaschpunpisal Phrapokklao Nursing College, Chanthaburi, Praboromarajchanok Institute
  • Nusara Prasertsri Boromarajonani College of Nursing Sanpasithiprasong, Praboromarajchanok Institute


Pain catastrophizing, Invariance measurement model, Acute pain, Chronic pain


This cross-sectional descriptive research aimed to test invariance measurement model of pain catastrophizing between acute and chronic pain groups. The samples consisted of 313 patients with pain who received medical services at Prapokklao Hospital, Chanthaburi Province. The research instruments were composed of the demographic questionnaire and the Thai version of Pain Catastrophizing Scale with reliability as .87. Data were collected from February to July, 2021. Statistics used for data analysis included frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Fisher’s exact test, Chi-square test, independent t-test, and multi-group invariance analysis.

The research results revealed that 1) factor form of pain catastrophizing had invariance between acute and chronic pain groups (χ2 = 218.93, df = 104, χ2/df = 2.11, p < .001, RMSEA = .075, NFI = .96, CFI = .98, and IFI = .98); 2) factor form and matrix lambda X of pain catastrophizing had invariance between acute and chronic pain groups (Δ χ2 = 5.23, Δ df = 13, and critical χ2 value = 5.89); and 3) factor form, matrix lambda X, and matrix theta delta of pain catastrophizing had variance between acute and chronic pain groups (Δ χ2 = 39.46, Δ df = 23, and critical χ2 value = 13.09).

This research suggests that health care providers should apply this Thai version of Pain Catastrophizing Scale for measuring pain catastrophizing of patients with acute or chronic pain in proper condition.


นงลักษณ์ วิรัชชัย. (2554). การทดสอบความไม่แปรเปลี่ยนของการวัดระหว่างกลุ่มผู้ถูกวัดด้วยการวิเคราะห์โมเดลสมการโครงสร้าง. วารสารวิจัยและพัฒนาหลักสูตร, 1(1), 69–80.

ยศพล เหลืองโสมนภา, นุสรา ประเสริฐศรี, ชวนชม พืชพันธ์ไพศาล, ลลิตา เดชาวุธ, และพิมพ์รัตน์ โทกุล. (2563). โมเดลการวัดของแบบวัดความคิดที่ไม่เหมาะสมเกี่ยวกับความปวดฉบับภาษาไทย. วารสารวิทยาลัยพยาบาลพระปกเกล้า จันทบุรี, 31(1), 33–42.

Ahmad, S., Zulkurnain, N. A., & Khairushalimi, F. I. (2016). Assessing the validity and reliability of a measurement model in structural equation modeling (SEM). British Journal of Mathematics & Computer Science, 15(3), 1–8. doi:10.9734/BJMCS/2016/25183

Birch, S., Stilling, M., Mechlenburg, I., Reinholdt, M. B., & Hansen, T. B. (2019). Association between pain catastrophizing, physical function and pain at first visit in the outpatient knee clinic. The Knee, 26(6), 1286–1291. doi:10.1016/j.knee.2019.08.012

Block, P. R., Thorn, B. E., Kapoor, S., & White, J. (2017). Pain catastrophizing, rather than vital signs, associated with pain intensity in patients presenting to the emergency department for pain. Pain Management Nursing, 18(2), 102–109. doi:10.1016/j.pmn.2016.12.001

Bonafe, F. S. S., Campos, L. A., Maroco, J., & Campos, J. A. D. B. (2019). Pain catastrophizing: Rumination is a discriminating factor among individuals with different pain characteristic. Brazilian Oral Research, 33(3), 1–12. doi:10.1590/1807-3107bor-2019.vol33.0113

Chen, A., Argoff, C., Crosby, E., & De, E. J. (2021). Chronic pelvic pain patients demonstrate higher catastrophizing in association with pelvic symptoms and comorbid pain diagnoses. Urology, 150, 146–150. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2020.06.055

Crombez, G., Eccleston, C., Baeyens, F., & Eelen, P. (1998). When somatic information threatens, catastrophic thinking enhances attentional interference. Pain, 75(2–3), 187–198. doi:10.1016/s0304-3959(97)00219-4

Damme, S. V., Crombez, G., Bijttebier, P., Goubert, L., & Houdenhove, B. V. (2002). A confirmatory factor analysis of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale: Invariant factors structure across clinical and non-clinical populations. Pain, 96(3), 319–324. doi:10.1016/S0304-3959(01)00463-8

Domenech, J., Sanchis-Alfonso, V., Lopez, L., & Espejo, B. (2013). Influence of kinesiophobia and catastrophizing on pain and disability in anterior knee pain patients. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 21(7), 1562–1568. doi:10.1007/s00167-012-2238-5

Forsythe, L. P., Thorn, B., Day, M., & Shelby, G. (2011). Race and sex differences in primary appraisals, catastrophizing, and experimental pain outcomes. The Journal of Pain, 12(5), 563–572. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2010.11.003

Hair Jr, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Khan, R. S., Ahmed, K., Blakeway, E., Skapinakis, P., Nihoyannopoulos, L., Macleod, K., … Athanasiou, T. (2011). Catastrophizing: A predictive factor for postoperative pain. American Journal of Surgery, 201(1), 122–131. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2010.02.007

Kim, H.-Y. (2013). Statistical notes for clinical researchers: Assessing normal distribution (2) using skewness and kurtosis. Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics, 38(1), 52–54. doi:10.5395/rde.2013.38.1.52

Meyer, K., Sprott, H., & Mannion, A. F. (2008). Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity of the German version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64(5), 469–478. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.12.004

Miro, J., Nieto, R., & Huguet, A. (2008). The Catalan version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale: A useful

instrument to assess catastrophic thinking in whiplash patients. The Journal of Pain, 9(5), 397–406. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2007.12.004

Moriarty, O., McGuire, B. E., & Finn, D. P. (2011). The effect of pain on cognitive function: A review of clinical and preclinical research. Progress in Neurobiology, 93(3), 385–404. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2011.01.002

Mosegaard, S. B., Stilling, M., & Hansen, T. B. (2020). Pain Catastrophizing Scale as a predictor of low postoperative satisfaction after hand surgery. Journal of Orthopaedics, 21, 245–248. doi:10.1016/j.jor.2020.03.008

Nawai, A., Foust, J. B., Shi, L., You, T., & Leveille, S. G. (2020). Is pain catastrophizing associated with poor mobility performance and falls in older adults?. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 91, 104219. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2020.104219

Nieto, S. J., Green, R., Grodin, E. N., Cahill, C. M., & Ray, L. A. (2021). Pain catastrophizing predicts alcohol craving in heavy drinkers independent of pain intensity. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 218, 108368. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108368

Overall, J. E., Tonidandel, S., & Starbuck, R. R. (2006). Rule-of-thumb adjustment of sample sizes to accommodate dropouts in a two-stage analysis of repeated measurements. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 15(1), 1–11. doi:10.1002/mpr.23

Putnick, D. L., & Bornstein, M. H. (2016). Measurement invariance conventions and reporting: The state of the art and future directions for psychological research. Developmental Review, 41, 71–90. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2016.06.004

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Severeijns, R., van den Hout, M. A., Vlaeyen, J. W. S., & Picavet, H. S. J. (2002). Pain catastrophizing and general health status in a large Dutch community sample. Pain, 99(1–2), 367–376. doi:10.1016/s0304-3959(02)00219-1

Starkweather, J. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling group differences:

Measurement invariance. Retrieved from

Sullivan, M. J. L. (2009). The Pain Catastrophizing Scale: User manual (5th ed.). Montreal, Quebec: Departments of Psychology, Medicine, and Neurology, School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University.

Sullivan, M. J. L., Bishop, S. R., & Pivik, J. (1995). The Pain Catastrophizing Scale: Development and validation. Psychological Assessment, 7(4), 524–532. doi:10.1037//1040-3590.7.4.524

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Thompson, K., Kramarchuk, M., Yagnatovsky, M., Kunichoff, D., Zacchilli, M., Campbell, K. A., … Strauss, E. (2020). Pain catastrophizing is associated with increased physical disability in patients with anterior knee pain. Journal of Orthopaedics, 21, 283–286. doi:10.1016/j.jor.2020.04.021




How to Cite

Leaungsomnapa, Y., Peaschpunpisal, C., & Prasertsri, N. (2021). Measurement Model of Pain Catastrophizing: Testing Measurement Invariance between Acute and Chronic Pain Groups. Journal of Phrapokklao Nursing College, Chanthaburi, 32(2), 245–256. Retrieved from



Research Report (รายงานการวิจัย)