Unilateral Galactocele In A Boy Who Received Risperidone : A Case Report Unilateral Galactocele In A Boy Who Received Risperidone

Main Article Content

Prakasit Wannapaschaiyong


Galactocele, generally occurring in young women during or after lactation, is an extremely rare cause of breast mass in infants and children, particularly in males. Here, we report a 7-year and 5-month-old boy who had a painless mass at his left breast. The hormonal blood test revealed hyperprolactinemia, caused by minimum risperidone dosage. Our purpose was to emphasize the importance of including galactocele as a differential diagnosis in children receiving risperidone presented with breast mass. Furthermore, we would like to encourage establishing a standardized follow-up guideline for pediatric patients receiving this drug. 


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Wannapaschaiyong, P. (2021). Unilateral Galactocele In A Boy Who Received Risperidone : A Case Report: Unilateral Galactocele In A Boy Who Received Risperidone . International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health, 9(2), 47–52. Retrieved from https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/cdmh/article/view/246975
Case reports


Ajmal, A., Joffe, H., & Nachtigall, L. B. (2014). Psychotropic-induced hyperprolactinemia: a clinical review. Psychosomatics, 55(1), 29-36. doi:10.1016/j.psym.2013.08.008

Aman, M. G., Binder, C., & Turgay, A. (2004). Risperidone effects in the presence/absence of psychostimulant medicine in children with ADHD, other disruptive behavior disorders, and subaverage IQ. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol, 14(2), 243-254. doi:10.1089/1044546041649020

Arabgol, F., Panaghi, L., & Nikzad, V. (2015). Risperidone Versus Methylphenidate in Treatment of Preschool Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Iran J Pediatr, 25(1), e265. doi:10.5812/ijp.265

Biederman, J., Monuteaux, M. C., Mick, E., Spencer, T., Wilens, T. E., Silva, J. M., . . . Faraone, S. V. (2006). Young adult outcome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a controlled 10-year follow-up study. Psychol Med, 36(2), 167-179. doi:10.1017/S0033291705006410

Boyle, M., Lakhoo, K., & Ramani, P. (1993). Galactocele in a male infant: case report and review of literature. Pediatr Pathol, 13(3), 305-308. doi:10.3109/15513819309048217

Brown, K. A., Samuel, S., & Patel, D. R. (2018). Pharmacologic management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a review for practitioners. Transl Pediatr, 7(1), 36-47. doi:10.21037/tp.2017.08.02

Byerly, M., Suppes, T., Tran, Q. V., & Baker, R. A. (2007). Clinical implications of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia spectrum or bipolar spectrum disorders: recent developments and current perspectives. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 27(6), 639-661. doi:10.1097/jcp.0b013e31815ac4e5

Cannavo, S., Venturino, M., Curto, L., De Menis, E., D'Arrigo, C., Tita, P., . . . Trimarchi, F. (2003). Clinical presentation and outcome of pituitary adenomas in teenagers. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 58(4), 519-527. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2265.2003.01748.x

Casanueva, F. F., Molitch, M. E., Schlechte, J. A., Abs, R., Bonert, V., Bronstein, M. D., . . . Giustina, A. (2006). Guidelines of the Pituitary Society for the diagnosis and management of prolactinomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 65(2), 265-273. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2006.02562.x

Correll, C. U., & Carlson, H. E. (2006). Endocrine and metabolic adverse effects of psychotropic medications in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 45(7), 771-791. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000220851.94392.30

ehealthme.com. Will you have Galactocele with Risperdal? Retrieved from https://www.ehealthme.com/ds/risperdal/galactocele/

Freeman, M. E., Kanyicska, B., Lerant, A., & Nagy, G. (2000). Prolactin: structure, function, and regulation of secretion. Physiol Rev, 80(4), 1523-1631. doi:10.1152/physrev.2000.80.4.1523

Germann, D., Kurylo, N., & Han, F. (2012). Risperidone. Profiles Drug Subst Excip Relat Methodol, 37, 313-361. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-397220-0.00008-8

Haddad, P. M., & Wieck, A. (2004). Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia: mechanisms, clinical features and management. Drugs, 64(20), 2291-2314. doi:10.2165/00003495-200464200-00003

Hodgkins, P., Shaw, M., Coghill, D., & Hechtman, L. (2012). Amfetamine and methylphenidate medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: complementary treatment options. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 21(9), 477-492. doi:10.1007/s00787-012-0286-5

Holt, R. I., & Peveler, R. C. (2011). Antipsychotics and hyperprolactinaemia: mechanisms, consequences and management. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 74(2), 141-147. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2010.03814.x

Inder, W. J., & Castle, D. (2011). Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 45(10), 830-837. doi:10.3109/00048674.2011.589044

Kearns, A. E., Goff, D. C., Hayden, D. L., & Daniels, G. H. (2000). Risperidone-associated hyperprolactinemia. Endocr Pract, 6(6), 425-429. doi:10.4158/EP.6.6.425

Kim, M. J., Kim, E. K., Park, S. Y., Jung, H. K., Oh, K. K., & Seok, J. Y. (2006). Galactoceles mimicking suspicious solid masses on sonography. J Ultrasound Med, 25(2), 145-151. doi:10.7863/jum.2006.25.2.145

McCracken, J. T., McGough, J., Shah, B., Cronin, P., Hong, D., Aman, M. G., . . . Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism, N. (2002). Risperidone in children with autism and serious behavioral problems. N Engl J Med, 347(5), 314-321. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa013171

McNeil, S. E., Gibbons, J. R., & Cogburn, M. (2020). Risperidone. In StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL).

Montgomery, J., Winterbottom, E., Jessani, M., Kohegyi, E., Fulmer, J., Seamonds, B., & Josiassen, R. C. (2004). Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in schizophrenia: association with typical and atypical antipsychotic treatment. J Clin Psychiatry, 65(11), 1491-1498. doi:10.4088/jcp.v65n1108

Naidoo, U., Goff, D. C., & Klibanski, A. (2003). Hyperprolactinemia and bone mineral density: the potential impact of antipsychotic agents. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28 Suppl 2, 97-108. doi:10.1016/s0306-4530(02)00129-4

Obrist, P., Schwabegger, A., Brunhuber, T., Schafer, G., & Kreczy, A. (2003). Galactocele in a young male patient. Plast Reconstr Surg, 112(1), 186-188. doi:10.1097/01.PRS.0000066172.74112.85

Perez-Boscollo, A. C., Dutra, R. A., Borges, L. G., Stafuzza Goncalves, E. M., Etchebehere, R. M., Rocha, R. L., . . . Ribeiro, T. C. (2009). Galactocele: an unusual cause of breast enlargement in children. J Pediatr Surg, 44(7), e1-3. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2009.04.009

Peuskens, J., Pani, L., Detraux, J., & De Hert, M. (2014). The effects of novel and newly approved antipsychotics on serum prolactin levels: a comprehensive review. CNS Drugs, 28(5), 421-453. doi:10.1007/s40263-014-0157-3

Poiana, C., Chirita, C., Carsote, M., Hortopan, D., & Goldstein, A. (2009). Galactocele and prolactinoma--a pathogenic association? Maturitas, 62(1), 98-102. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2008.10.015

Serretti, A., & Chiesa, A. (2011). A meta-analysis of sexual dysfunction in psychiatric patients taking antipsychotics. Int Clin Psychopharmacol, 26(3), 130-140. doi:10.1097/YIC.0b013e328341e434

Sievertsen, G. D., Lim, V. S., Nakawatase, C., & Frohman, L. A. (1980). Metabolic clearance and secretion rates of human prolactin in normal subjects and in patients with chronic renal failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 50(5), 846-852. doi:10.1210/jcem-50-5-846

Vlahovic, A., Djuricic, S., Todorovic, S., Djukic, M., Milanovic, D., & Vujanic, G. M. (2012). Galactocele in male infants: report of two cases and review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr Surg, 22(3), 246-250. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1308694

Vlahovic, A., Djuricic, S. M., & Todorovic, S. (2015). Unilateral galactocele in a male infant. Vojnosanit Pregl, 72(2), 188-191. doi:10.2298/vsp1502188v