Effect of Vitamin D Supplements on Acute Spinal Cord Injury: A Double-blinded, Randomized Control Trial
Keywords:vitamin D supplement, acute spinal cord injury, vitamin D deficiency, Activities of daily living, 25(OH)D
Objectives: To study the effect of vitamin D supplements in acute spinal cord injury patients.
Study design: Double-blind randomized controlled trial.
Settings: Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital.
Subjects: Acute spinal cord injury patients (onset < 1 month) admitted to Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital between May 1, 2020 and September, 30, 2021.
Methods: Thirty patients with 25(OH)D vitamin D levels ≥ 20 ng/mL were randomly assigned to one of two groups: intervention or control. The intervention group received one tablet of 20,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks for three months. The placebo was given to the control group. Vitamin D levels, the primary outcome, were measured at baseline and after three months. At the 3-month follow-up, sun exposure, a food frequency questionnaire, Spinal Cord Independence Measure III (SCIM III), and Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire for People with Spinal Cord Injury (LTPAQ) were all assessed. The proportion test was used to compare the scores of the two groups for secondary outcomes.
Results: There were 13 patients in the intervention group and 17 in the control group. The majority in both groups had paraplegia and both groups had similar sun exposure and vitamin D food intake. Before receiving vitamin D supplementation, the intervention and control groups had mean vitamin D levels of 27.54 (5.23) and 29.11 (7.60) ng/mL, respectively. After the study period, the intervention group had a higher mean vitamin D level of 10.29 (8.59) ng/mL. The mean vitamin D level in the intervention group had increased by 10.29 (8.59) ng/mL, but the level in the control group was slightly decreased. There was also a statistically significant difference in the number of patients with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency between the intervention group (2 (15.38%)) and the control group (9 (52.94%), but there was no statistically significant difference in SCIM III and LTPAQ between the two groups.
Conclusions: As a result, patients with acute spinal cord injuries should receive vitamin D supplements to reduce existing vitamin D deficiency
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