Update in Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction after Cardiac Surgery: A Literature Review

Cognitive Dysfunction after Cardiac Surgery


  • Natparin Sangprateep Department of Anesthesiology, Hatyai Hospital, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
  • Jutarat Tanasansuttiporn Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
  • Sumidtra Prathep Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
  • Sutthasinee Petsakul Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
  • Wilasinee Jitpakdee Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
  • Wirat Wasinwong Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand




cardiac surgery, cognitive function, elderly


Cardiac surgery is a common surgery in the elderly including of coronary artery bypass surgery and valvular heart surgery. The major complication after cardiac surgery is neurological complication. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is one of the major neurological complications. Patients who have neurological complications are reported to have a lower ability to form and organize their thoughts and understanding after the completion of surgery. POCD has the consequences in all health aspects. For instance, a longer period of hospital stay, poor quality of life and the increased rate of other complications.

However, there is no precise definition of cognitive impairment. In order to diagnose, preoperative neuropsychological tests are normally compared with postoperative neuropsychological tests. However, other similar neurological diseases after the surgery should be ruled out.

The risk factors for POCD were categorized into 3 major factors. Firstly, surgical factors which are systematic inflammation, cerebral microemboli, global hypoperfusion, induced hypothermia, and extreme hemodilution. Secondly, anesthetic factor which is total intravenous anesthesia. Thirdly, patient factors which are age, underlying disease, genetic, and smoking habit. If these mentioned conditions can be addressed before surgery, the incidence of cognitive impairment is very likely to be lower.


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How to Cite

Sangprateep N, Tanasansuttiporn J, Prathep S, Petsakul S, Jitpakdee W, Wasinwong W. Update in Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction after Cardiac Surgery: A Literature Review: Cognitive Dysfunction after Cardiac Surgery. PSU Med J [Internet]. 2022 May 19 [cited 2022 Aug. 20];2(2):59-6. Available from: https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/PSUMJ/article/view/254213



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