The Development of Isometric Handgrip Exercise Innovation for Homebound Elderly with Hypertension
Keywords:isometric handgrip exercise, hypertension, homebound elderly
This research and innovation development aimed to design and evaluate the effectiveness and the outcomes of an isometric handgrip exercise innovation for homebound elderly with hypertension. A sample of 22 elderly with hypertension and a control group of 21 individuals were selected. The control group performed regular exercise, while the experimental group performed the isometric handgrip exercise at an intensity of 30% of their maximum grip strength for 2 minutes, followed by a 1-minute rest, repeated for 4 rounds, 3 times a week. The research tool used was the isometric handgrip exercise innovation developed by the researcher and the exercise program. The data was collected using an automatic blood pressure measuring device and a satisfaction assessment form. The satisfaction assessment form was tested for validity (CVI = 0.89)and reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = .80). The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and the T-test. The research findings showed that:
1) The innovation of isometric handgrip exercise can be separated into control units with a display screen and sound signals. The grip handle was convenient to use, measured the maximum grip strength, and calculated the appropriate grip strength for each user. There were audio signals at each step and warnings when the grip strength was not within the appropriate range. 2) The effectiveness of the innovation found that the innovation could measure maximum grip strength, calculate the average maximum hand grip strength, and the time to hold the grip accurately at 100%. The elderly group was highly satisfied with the overall use (=3.48, S.D.=0.56), especially with the innovation that promotes exercise (=3.58, S.D.=0.50). 3) The effectiveness of the innovation found that the experimental group had significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure after using the innovation (p < .001). Additionally, the mean systolic blood pressure of the elderly group who exercised with the innovation decreased by 12.00 millimeters of mercury, which was statistically significant compared to the mean blood pressure of the elderly group who exercised normally (p = 0.02). However, the groups had no significant difference in diastolic blood pressure between the groups. The research results show that isometric handgrip exercise innovation can reduce blood pressure in homebound elderly with hypertension. Therefore, this innovation may be an alternative way to promote health and lower blood pressure in elderly people who are homebound or have limited mobility.
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