Translation and Validation of the Typology of the Aged with Illustrations Measurement in the Thai Version


  • Supannee Peawnalaw
  • Chutikarn Chatrung
  • Tiwa Mahaprom ฺBoromarajonani College of Nursing Suphanburi


older adults, back-translation method, content validity, reliability, Typology of the Aged with Illustrations


This research aimed to translate and examine the validity and reliability of the Typology of the Aged with Illustrations in the Thai version. The English version was translated into Thai using the five steps of a back-translation method (Brislin, 1970; 1986). The participants were 322 older adults. The research instrument was Barthel ADL Index and the Typology of the Aged with Illustrations. The demographic data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. The Item and scale level content validity index were computed for content validity and criterion-related validity was analyzed by using Pearson product moment correlation.The results revealed that the Thai version of the Typology of the Aged with Illustrations had content and semantic validity as compared to the original version. The Item-level content validity index were 89 .89 1.0 .89 and Scale-level content validity index was .92. The criterion-related validity showed a high score for group identification and positively correlated with Barthel ADL index at a statistically significant level of .05. Moreover, Cronbach's Alpha was .87. The research findings indicated that the Typology of the Aged with Illustrations in the Thai version had high content validity and reliability. It can be used for categorizing the group of older adults to provide appropriate nursing care.


Download data is not yet available.


Brislin, R.W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural

research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,

(3), 185-216.

Brislin, R. W. (1986). The Wording and Translation

of Research Instruments. In W. L. Lonner &

J. W. Berry (Eds.), Field Methods in CrossCultural Research. (pp.137-164). Newbury

Park, CA: Sage.

Charoenwong, S., Kongkun, P., Chansangrat, N.,

Sriwan, P., & Niramangul, R. (2018). Dependent

elders in a southern rural Muslimcommunity:

Current situation of care and needs for longterm care. The Southern College Network

Journal of Nursing and Public Health, 5(2),

-246. [In Thai].

Granger, C.V., Dewis, L.S., Peters, N.C., Sherwood,

C.C., & Barrett, J.E. (1979). Stroke rehabilitation:

analysis of repeated Barthel index measures.

Archives of physical medicine and

rehabilitation, 60(1), 14-7.

Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol

University. (2021). Thailandometers 2021.

Retrieved 13 November 2021 from http://www. /#elderly.

Jitapunkul, S. (2001). The main principles of

geriatric medicine (3rded.). Bangkok:

Chulalongkorn University. [In Thai].

Jones, P.S., Lee, J.W., Phillips, L.R., Zhang, X.E., &

Jaceldo, K.B. (2001). An adaptation of Brislin's

Translation Model for cross-cultural research.

Nursing Research, 50(5), 300-4.

Kitsadachatree, P. (2019). Cognitive status, cognitive

thinking, andmemory of the elderly.

Journal of MCU Humanities Review, 5(1),

-72. [In Thai].

Krejcie, R.V., & Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining

sample size for research activities. Educational

and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607-10.

Mahaprom, T., Monkong, S. & Wongvatunyu, S.

(2017). Tai Chi practice and its impact on

elderly people's balance. Thai Journal of

Nursing Council, 32(3),50-65. [In Thai].

Mahoney, F. I., & Barthel, D. W. (1965). Functional

evaluation: The Barthel Index: A simple index

of independence useful in scoring improvement

in the rehabilitation of the chronically ill.

Maryland State Medical Journal, 14, 6165.

Mauk, K. L. (2014). Gerontological Nursing:

Competencies for Care (3rd edition).

Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Nawsuwan, K., & Suwanraj, M. (2019). Current

problems and care needs of older adults

living inlocal administrative organization

responsibility area in the lower southern of

Thailand. Boromarajonani College of Nursing,

Uttaradit Journal, 11(2), 118-132. [In Thai].

Okochi, J., Takahashi, T., Takamuku, K., Matsuda,

S., & Takagi, Y. (2005). Reliability of a geriatric

assessment instrument with illustrations.

Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 5(1),


Takahashi, T., Okochi, J., Takamuku, K., &Matsuda,

S.(2001). The introduction of typology of the

aged with illustrations. Casemix Quarterly,

(1), 314.

Takahashi, T. (2021). ICF illustration library.

Retrieved 6 March 2021 from http://www.

Tepvorachai, U., Yodpinit, S., Detkasem, N., &

Komphayak, U. (2021). Knowledge of elderly

health care in the homes of senior high

school students in Pathum Thani province.

The Journal of Pacific Institute of Management

Science (Humanities and Social Science),

(2), 671-679. [In Thai].

The 3rd National Plan on The Elderly 2023-2037.

retrieved 9 November 2021 from https://

www.dop. download/laws/th165355


Wanitchakham, A. (2019). Preparation for aging

society: A case study of Sai Mai district,

Bangkok. Journal of Association of Private

Higher Education Institutions of Thailand

(APHEIT). 25(1), 164-179. [In Thai].




How to Cite

Peawnalaw, S. ., Chatrung, C. ., & Mahaprom, T. (2022). Translation and Validation of the Typology of the Aged with Illustrations Measurement in the Thai Version. NU Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences, 16(3), 162–173. Retrieved from