Effect of Brushing on Surface Roughness and Surface Free Energy of PMMA Provisional Restoration Materials

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Chanachon Wachangngoen
Putsadeeporn Thammajaruk
Supanee Buranadham


The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of brushing on surface roughness (Ra) and surface free energy (SFE) of 3 PMMA provisional crown materials. Twenty specimens each were prepared from self-cured, heat-cured, and CAD-CAM materials. Each material group was randomly divided into 2 groups of 10 to receive brushing with either distilled water or toothpaste, using a brushing machine. Measurements of Ra and SFE were performed prior to, and after being brushed for 720 and 1440 cycles, respectively. It was found that Ra and SFE of all materials were not different prior to brushing. Brushing with distilled water had no significant effect on both Ra and SFE in all materials. Self-cured PMMA developed significantly higher Ra than the others when brushed with toothpaste for 720 and 1440 cycles. In addition, self-cured PMMA developed significantly higher SFE than CAD-CAM PMMA when brushed with toothpaste for 1440 cycles.  On the other hand, brushing with toothpaste up to 1440 cycles did not have any effect on both Ra and SFE of CAD-CAM PMMA. There was some positive correlation between Ra and SFE in self-cured and heat-cured but none in CAD-CAM group. In conclusion, after being brushed with toothpaste for 1440 cycles, self-cured PMMA developed significantly higher Ra and SFE than the others while there were no significant changes of both values in CAD-CAM PMMA. There was some positive correlation between Ra and SFE in self-cured and heat-cured groups.


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Wachangngoen C, Thammajaruk P, Buranadham S. Effect of Brushing on Surface Roughness and Surface Free Energy of PMMA Provisional Restoration Materials. Khon Kaen Dent J [Internet]. 2022 Jul. 11 [cited 2022 Oct. 5];25(2):28-37. Available from: https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/KDJ/article/view/248098
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