Fracture Resistance of Simulated Open Apex Root with Three Brands of Calcium Silicate Cement as an Apical Plug

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Patara Ancheun
Suwit Wimonchit


The aim of this study was to examine the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth after root canal filling with three brands of calcium silicate cement. A total of sixty single-rooted lower premolars were sectioned to obtain an 8 mm length. An artificial open apex was prepared using a No.1- No.6 Peeso Reamers on entire the length of the tooth. After that, all specimens were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 15 teeth each, according to the type of calcium silicate cement: groups I (control) - completely filled with gutta-percha and AH+ sealer, groups II - ProRoot MTA, groups III - MTA angelus and groups IV - Retro MTA. Each specimen was then subjected to fracture testing using a Universal Testing Machine. The samples were loaded at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until the fracture occurred. The maximum force needed to fracture was recorded in newtons. The data were analyzed statistically by One-Way ANOVA with a Scheffe test. Results: The control group showed significantly lower fracture resistance compared to the other groups (P < .05). No significant differences in fracture resistance between the ProRoot MTA, MTA angelus, and Retro MTA groups were revealed (P > .05). The most common fracture level was the 1/3 middle in 27 of 45 teeth. The immature teeth were completely filled with ProRoot MTA , MTA angelus, and  Retro MTA which seemed to increase fracture resistance.


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Ancheun P, Wimonchit S. Fracture Resistance of Simulated Open Apex Root with Three Brands of Calcium Silicate Cement as an Apical Plug. Khon Kaen Dent J [Internet]. 2021 Mar. 28 [cited 2023 Jan. 29];24(1):66-75. Available from:
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