• Parunchaya JAMKRAJANG
  • Thitiphan SRISOMPHAN
  • Boonvichit WARISUT
  • Phornpot CHAINOK
  • Supaporn THAWORNWAT
  • Taspol KEERASOMBOON Mahidol University


Turning performance, Anthropometry, Center of mass, Time on the wall, Push-off velocity


     The purpose of this study is to investigate the anthropometry using the Ape index on push-off velocity, time on the wall, and center of mass trajectory in the vertical direction during the butterfly to backstroke turning. The study involved 8 Thai national swimmers, with an average age of 19.3 ± 4.4 years, weight of 64.2 ± 9.8 kilograms, and height of 173 ± 7.9 centimeters. Anthropometric measurements were taken, including weight height, and arm span. The participants were then divided into two groups based on their arm span-to-height ratio, with one group having an Ape index greater than 1 (Arm Span/Height >1) and the other group having an Ape index less than 1 (Arm Span/Height <1). Before starting the experiment, the participants in both groups were attached to the reflective marker on the Sacrum, then performed butterfly to backstroke turning for 3 trials. 20 cameras of 3-dimensional twin motion capture system were used to record. For statistical analysis, the Independence t-test was used to find the difference in biomechanical variables between two groups. The significant level was set at p-value < 0.05

     The research found no significant difference in push-off velocity, time on the wall between the two groups (p-value> 0.05). Furthermore, when comparing the center of mass trajectory in the vertical direction, both groups had similar patterns. However, the reasons for these findings need to be clarified as other factors may be affecting the transition, such as individual turning techniques. In conclusion, body proportions using the Ape index did not affect time on the wall, push-off velocity, and center of mass trajectory in the vertical direction during the butterfly to backstroke turning for the swimmers in both groups.

(Journal of Sports Science and Technology 2023; 23(2):8-19)
(Received: 14 April 2023, Revised: 13 July 2023, Accepted: 17 July 2023)

* Corresponding Author: Taspol KEERASOMBOON
College of Sports Science and Technology, Mahidol University,THAILAND
Email: [email protected]

Author Biography

Taspol KEERASOMBOON, Mahidol University

College of Sports Science and Technology, Mahidol University ,THAILAND


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Original article