• Natthida BANGMEK Faculty of Sport Science, Burapha University 169 Longhaad Bangsaen Road, Saensook, Mueang, ChonBuri 20131
  • Kanok PANTHONG College of Research Methodology and Cognitive Science, Burapha University
Keywords: body composition, muscle strength, young swimmers, dry-land training


This study aims to determine the effects of combined dry-land strength training and swimming training on body composition, muscle strength, and aerobic swimming performance in young swimmers. The participants consisted of 6 male swimmers the Assumption College Sriracha swimming club, aged 9-15 years old, experienced in swimming 1-5 years. The participants performed a dry-land strength training, 2 days/week, 1 hour per day, and swimming training, 6 days/week, 2 hour per day for 12 weeks. The data about body composition, muscle strength, and aerobic swimming performance, were collected before and after training at weeks 4th, 8th, and 12th. The data were analyzed by using the Friedman test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test. The results showed that the young swimmers had significantly increased weight, the fat-free mass, and muscle strength after the combined dry-land strength training and swimming training. The percentage of body fat, fat mass, and critical swimming speed before training, after training weeks 4th, 8th, and 12th were not different significantly. In conclusion, combined dry-land strength training and swimming training increase muscle strength and fat-free mass in young swimmers. The athletes can use the combined dry-land strength training and swimming training could be a favorable training program for improving swimming performance in young swimmers.

(Journal of Sports Science and Technology 2020; 20(1): 36-50)
(Received: 5 Augest 2019, Revised: 16 March 2020, Accepted: 9 April 2020)

KEYWORDS: Body Composition/ Muscle Strength/ Young Swimmers/ Aerobic Swimming Performance/ Dry-Land Strength Training

*Corresponding author: Natthida BANGMEK
Faculty of Education, Rajabhat Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, THAILAND, 44000


Download data is not yet available.


1. Riewald S. Periodization and Planning. Science of swimming faster. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics; 2015.
2. Balyi I, Cardinal C, Higgs C, Norris S, Way R. Canadian sport for life: Long term athlete development. Vancouver (BC): Canadian Sport Centres; 2005.
3. Ruiz RJ, Ortega FB, Gutierrez A, Meusel D, Sjöström MM, Castillo MJ. Health-related fitness assessment in childhood and adolescence. J Public Health, 2006; 14(5): 269–277.
4. Balyi I, Way R, Higgs C. Long term athlete development. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics; 2013.
5. Morais JE, Silva AJ, Marinho DA, Marques MC, Barbosa TM. Effect of a specific concurrent water and dry-land training over a season in young swimmers’ performance. Int J Perf Anal Spor, 2016; 16(3): 760-775.
6. Krabak BJ, Hancock KJ, Drake S. Comparison of dry-land training programs between age groups of swimmers. PM&R, 2013; 5(4): 303-309.
7. Grant MC, Kavaliauskas M. Land based resistance training and youth swimming performance. Int. J. Sports Med, 2017; 3(4): 1-11.
8. Sighamoney R, Bilwa J, Kachare B, Yeole U, Tendulkar S. Effectiveness of dry land strength training in competitive swimmers. IJDR, 2018; 3(1): 415-419.
9. Viru A, Viru M. Biochemical monitoring of sport training. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics; 2001.
10. Thailand Swimming Association. Statistic swimming records online Resources; c2018 [cited 2019 jan 9]. Available from:
11. Thomas PR. Sample size determination and power. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
12. Tourinho FH, Pires M, Puggina EF, Papoti M, Barbieri R, Martinelli Jr.CE. Serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and ALS concentrations and physical performance in young swimmers during a training season. Growth Hormone & IGF Research, 2017; 32: 49-54.
13. Westcott WL, Baechle TR. Strength training past 50. Third ed. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics; 2015.
14. Faigenbaum AD, Kraemer WJ, Blimkie CJ, Jeffreys I, Micheli LJ, Nitka M, et al. Youth resistance training: updated position statement paper from the national strength and conditioning association. J Strength Cond Res, 2009; 23: S60-S79.
15. Slaughter MH, Lohman TG, Boileau RA, Horswill CA, Stillman RJ, Van Loan MD, et al. Skinfold equations for estimation of body fatness in children and youth. Am J Hum Biol, 1988; 60: 709-23.
16. Siri, WE. Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods. In: Brozek J, Henschel A, editors. Techniques for Measuring Body Composition. Washington D.C.: Nat Acad Sci N.R.C.; 1961. p. 223-44.
17. Bureau of Sports Science. The manual of sports science for improve young athlete performance. Bureau of Sports Science, Office of Sports and Recreation Development; 2006.
18. McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Exercise physiology: energy, nutrition, and human performance. Sixth ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2007.
19. Pate RR, Wang CY, Dowda M, Farrell SW, O’Neill JR. Cardiorespiratory fitness levels among US youth 12 to 19 years of age: findings from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2006; 160: 1005-1012.
20. Department of Health. The manual for using high weight reference criteria to assess the growth of Thai children. Bangkok: Bureau of Nutrition, Department of Health; 2000.
21. Department of Physical Education. Physical fitness test and normative reference for Thai children aged 7-18 years. Department of Physical Education, Ministry of Tourism and Sports; 2012.
22. Bureau of Sports Science. A Study of the Physical Fitness of the Students between the Aged Of 10-12 Years Old. Bureau of Sports Science, Office of Sports and Recreation Development; 2005.
23. Sadres E, Eliakim A, Constantini N, Lidor R, Falk B. The effect of long-term resistance training on anthropometric measures, muscle strength, and self-concept in pae-pubertal boys. Pediatr Exerc Sci, 2001; 13: 357-372.
24. Hirata K, Kaku K. The Evaluating method of physique and physical fitness and practical application. Japan: Mino-City. 1964
25. Puli J. A study on anthropometric characteristics of the Thai top class athletes. (Thesis) Kasetsart University. 1990.
26. MacKelvie KJ, Khan KM, McKay H A. Is there a critical period for bone response to weight-bearing exercise in children and adolescents? a systematic review. BJSM, 2002; 36: 250–257.
27. Juul A, Bang P, Hertel NT, Main K, Dalgaard K, Jorgensen K, et al. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 in 1030 healthy children, adolescents and adults : relation to age, sex, stage of puberty, testicular size and body mass index. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1994; 78: 744-52.
28. Girold S, Maurin D, Dugue B, Chatard JC, Millet G. Effects of dry-land vs. Resisted- and assisted-sprint exercises on swimming sprint performances. The J Strength Condit Res, 2007; 21: 599-605.
29. Bamman MM, Shipp JR, Jiang J, Gower BA, Hunter GR, Goodman A, et al. Mechanical load increases muscle IGF-I and androgen receptor mRNA concentrations in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2001; 280(3): E383-90.
30. Kraemer W, Ratamess N. Hormonal Responses and Adaptations to Resistance Exercise and Training. Sports Med, 2005; 35(4): 339-361.