Main Article Content
Objectives : To develop and examine effect of the mindfulness-based group therapy (MBGT)
program in improving executive functioning among elementary school students.
Methods : Fifty-four 4th grade students from 2 classrooms of one public school in Bangkok
were recruited. Twenty-seven students from one classroom were assigned to a MBGT group,
and 27 students from the other classroom were assigned to a control group. The MBGT program
was conducted as a weekly one-hour session for 8 sessions. The main outcome was the
student’s executive function as measured by the teacher-rated executive function scale (EFS-T),
which assesses metacognition, emotional regulation and behavioral regulation. Assessments
were administered at baseline, prior to the intervention, and after completion of the intervention.
Changes in EFS-T scores between intervention and control groups were tested.
Results : Students in the MBGT group demonstrated better improvement in EFS-T scores of
total cognitive function, metacognition, emotional regulation and behavioral regulation
compared with those in the control group. Improvement in EFS-T scores were 9.37 (SD=4.15)
in MBGT group compared with 0.63 (SD=3.50) in control group for metacognition
(p <0.005),12.30 (SD=6.31) in MBGT group compared with 4.25 (SD=5.07) in control group
for emotional regulation (p <0.005), 9.00 (SD=5.80) in MBGT group compared with -0.89
(SD=2.81) in control group for behavioral regulation (p <0.005), and 10.70 (SD=4.65) in MBGT
group compared with 1.59 (SD=3.08) in control group for total score (p <0.005).
Conclusion : MBGT may be an effective school-based intervention that can improve executive
functioning in primary school students.
บทความที่ส่งมาลงตีพิมพ์ในวารสารสมาคมจิตแพทย์ ต้องไม่เคยตีพิมพ์หรือได้รับการตอบรับให้ตีพิมพ์ในวารสารฉบับอื่น และต้องไม่อยู่ระหว่างการส่งไปตีพิมพ์ในวารสารอื่น
Diamond A. Executive functions. Annu Rev Psychol 2013; 64: 135-68.
Jacobson LA, Williford AP, Pianta RC. The role of executive function in children’s competent adjustment to middle school. Child Neuropsychol 2011; 17: 255-80.
Barkley RA, Grodzinsky G, DuPaul GJ. Frontal lobe functions in attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity: A review and research report. J Abnorm Child Psychol 1992; 20: 163-88.
Barkley RA. Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psycho Bull 1997; 121: 65.
Shallice T, Marzocchi GM, Coser S, Del Savio M, Meuter RF, Rumiati RI. Executive function profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Dev Neuropsychol 2002; 21: 43-71.
Brown TE, Landgraf JM. Improvements in executive function correlate with enhanced performance and functioning and health-related quality of life: evidence from 2 large, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in ADHD. Postgrad Med 2010; 122: 42-51.
Baler RD, Volkow ND. Drug addiction: the neurobiology of disrupted self-control. Trends Mol Med 2006; 12: 559-66.
Denson TF, Pedersen WC, Friese M, Hahm A, Roberts LJP, Bulletin SP. Understanding impulsive aggression: Angry rumination and reduced self-control capacity are mechanisms underlying the provocation-aggression relationship. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2011; 37: 850-62.
Taylor HG, Clark CA. Executive function in children born preterm: Risk factors and implications for outcome. Seminars in perinatology. Semin Perinatol 2016; 40: 520-9.
Polanczyk G, De Lima MS, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164: 942-8.
Visanuyothin T, Pavasuthipaisit C, Wachiradilok P, Arunruang P, Buranasuksakul T. The prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Thailand. Journal of Mental Health of Thailand 2013; 21: 66-75.
Siegel LS, Ryan EB. The development of working memory in normally achieving and subtypes of learning disabled children. Child Dev 1989; 60: 973-80.
Barkley RA, McMurray MB, Edelbrock CS, Robbins KJ. Side effects of methylphenidate in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systemic, placebo-controlled evaluation. Pediatrics 1990; 86: 184-92.
Diamond A, Lee K. Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science 2011; 333(6045): 959-64.
Hölzel BK, Lazar SW, Gard T, Schuman-Olivier Z, Vago DR, Ott UJ. How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspect Psychol Sci 2011; 6: 537-59.
Lu S, Huang C, Rios JJ, Review YS. Mindfulness and academic performance: An example of migrant children in China. Child Youth Serv Rev 2017; 82: 53-9.
Flook L, Smalley SL, Kitil MJ, Galla BM, Kaiser- Greenland S, Locke J, et al. Effects of mindful awareness practices on executive functions in elementary school children. J Appl Sch Psychol 2010; 26: 70-95.
McCloskey LE, Sciences B. Mindfulness as an intervention for improving academic success among students with executive functioning disorders. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2015; 174: 221-6.
Cairncross M, Miller CJ. The effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapies for ADHD: a meta-analytic review. J Atten Disord (journal on the internet) 2016 Feb 2 [cited 2019 Dec 18]. doi: 10.1177/1087054715625301. (Epub ahead of print)
Anantavorawong S, Narkpongphun A, Health M. The effects of a mindfulness therapy program on core symptoms of children with ADHD disorder. International Journal of Child Developmental and Mental Health 2018; 6: 40-55.
Saengsawang T, Langka W, Utairatanakit D, Semheng S. A development of executive function skills indicators for elementary students. BU Academic Review 2016; 15: 14-28.