One-Year Follow-Up of Parent Management Training Program for Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems

Main Article Content

ภาวิตา จงสุขศิริ
สุพร อภินันทเวช
สิรินัดดา ปัญญาภาส


Objectives : To study the long term effectiveness of parent management training program for
children with externalizing behavior problems at 6 months and 1 year follow up.
Methodology : This was a quasi-experimental study. The experimental group comprised of
39 parents of children with externalizing behavior problems who participated in the parent
management training during the year 2015-2016. The control group comprised of 32 parents who
attended the outpatient department. The tools used were general information questionnaire, the
modified IOWA Conners rating scale- Thai version, Weiss functional impairment rating scale- Thai
version and the modified parenting practice test. The data was analyzed using T-test and ANCOVA.
Results : The demographic data between the experimental and control group was statistically
different in the following areas: child’s sex, parent’s age, income and GPA. There’s a statistically
significant change within the experimental group comparing baseline scores to immediate
post-treatment and 6-month and 1-year follow up in the following measures: The modified IOWA
Conners rating scale - Thai version (p = 0.024 and p = 0.028), Weiss functional impairment
rating scale- Thai version (p = 0.005, 0.001 and 0.038) and the modified parenting practice test.
(p = 0.005 and 0.001). There’s no statistically significant change between the control and the
experimental group in all 3 measures.
Conclusion : Parent management training program reduced child externalizing behavior, decreased
functional impairment and improved parenting practices. The benefits were maintained for at least
6 months. Due to loss to follow up we cannot conclude whether the benefits were maintained at
1 year post-program. The results between the experimental and control group were not statistically
different. There’s limitation in comparing between these two groups as both had some different
baseline factors.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
จงสุขศิริ ภ., อภินันทเวช ส., & ปัญญาภาส ส. (2019). One-Year Follow-Up of Parent Management Training Program for Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems. Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand, 64(2), 163–176. Retrieved from
Original Articles


Fossum S, Morch WT, Handegard BH, Drugli MB. Childhood disruptive behaviors and family functioning in clinically referred children: are girls different from boys? Scand J Psychol 2007; 48: 375-82.

Moffitt TE. Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy. Psychol Rev 1993; 100: 674-701.

Mrug S, Windle M. Mediators of neighborhood influences on externalizing behavior in preadolescent children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2009; 37: 265-80.

Patterson GR, DeGarmo D, Forgatch MS. Systematic changes in families following prevention trials. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2004; 32: 621-33.

Dretzke J, Frew E, Davenport C, Barlow J, Stewart-Brown S, Sandercock J, et al. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of parent training/education programmes for the treatment of conduct disorder, including oppositional defiant disorder, in children. Health Technol Assess 2005; 9: iii, ix-x, 1-233.

Eyberg SM, Nelson MM, Boggs SR. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with disruptive behavior. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2008; 37: 215-37.

de Graaf I, Speetjens P, Smit F, de Wolff M, Tavecchio L. Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program on behavioral problems in children: a meta-analysis. Behav Modif 2008; 32: 714-35.

Sandler IN, Schoenfelder EN, Wolchik SA, MacKinnon DP. Long-term impact of prevention programs to promote effective parenting: lasting effects but uncertain processes. Annu Rev Psychol 2011; 62: 299-329.

Kazdin AE. Parent management training: evidence, outcomes, and issues. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997; 36: 1349-56.

Larsson B, Fossum S, Clifford G, Drugli MB, Handegard BH, Morch WT. Treatment of oppositional defiant and conduct problems in young Norwegian children : results of a randomized controlled trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2009; 18: 42-52.

Rimwitayagorn V. The Effects of using a Parent Management Training Program on Parent’s Behavior towards Their Children. National Research Council of Thailand, 2007.

Mash EJ, Johnston C. Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the family: A developmental psychopathology perspective. Psychopathology and the family; 2005: 93-124.

Scott S. Do Parenting Programmes for Severe Child Antisocial Behaviour Work over the Longer Term, and for Whom? One Year follow-up of a Multi-Centre Controlled Trial. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 2005; 33: 403-21.

Bandura A. Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev 1977; 84: 191-215.

Kessler RC, Adler LA, Barkley R, Biederman J, Conners CK, Faraone SV, et al. Patterns and predictors of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder persistence into adulthood: results from the national comorbidity survey replication Biol Psychiatry 2005; 57: 1442-51.