Validity and Reliability of Cyber-Aggression Perpetration and Victimization Scale: Thai Version
Objectives : Cyberbullying involves bullying through online means and is associated with
psychiatric problems such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, suicidality, psychosomatic
symptoms, hyperactivity, absenteeism, substance use, etc. There currently exists no measure
for cyberbullying in Thai and we sought to validate one.
Methods : The questionnaire consists of 2 sections, 24 items in total. It was translated by
independent translator and its content was validated by a group of experts. Face validity was
performed with volunteers. Final version was validated in 295 middle-school students in
Bangkok for reliability and construct validity through exploratory factor analysis.
Results : Final item-objective congruence indices were between 0.8 and 1. Cronbach’s α were
0.850 and 0.856 for each section. Exploratory factor analysis extracted 4 factors. Redundant,
non-relevant, and non-acceptable-for-answer items were removed and 2 factors were extracted.
Conclusions : Being face-validated, content-validated, construct validated, and tested for
internal consistency, Cyber-aggression perpetration and victimization scale: Thai version is a
valid measure for cyberbullying in Thai context.
National Statistical Office. The 2016 Household Survey on the Use of Information and Communication Technology. [Internet]. [cited 2017 Jan 4]. Available from: http://service.nso. go.th/nso/nsopublish/themes/files/icthh56.pdf. Thai.
National Statistical Office. Summary of the 2013 Household Survey on the Use of Information and Communication Technology. [Internet]. [cited 2017 Jan 4]. Available from: http://service.nso.go.th/nso/nsopublish/ themes/files/icthh56.pdf. Thai.
Smith PK, del Barrio C, Tokunaga RS. Definitions of bullying and cyberbullying: How useful are the terms? In: Bauman S, Cross D, Walker J, editors. Principles of Cyberbullying Research: Definitions, Measures, and Methodology. Philadelphia: Routledge; 2012: 26-40.
US Legal, Inc. Cyber Bullying Law and Legal Definition. In: Legal Definitions [Internet]. [cited 2017 Apr 1]. Available from: https://definitions. uslegal.com/c/cyber-bullying/
Slonje R, Smith PK, Frisén A. The nature of cyberbullying, and strategies for prevention. Comput Hum Behav 2013; 29: 26-32.
Barlett CP. From theory to practice: Cyberbullying theory and its application to intervention. Comput Hum Behav 2017; 72: 269-75.
Rivers I, Smith PK. Types of bullying behaviour and their correlates. Aggress Behav 1994; 20: 359-68.
Modecki KL, Minchin J, Harbaugh AG, Guerra NG, Runions KC. Bullying prevalence across contexts: a meta-analysis measuring cyber and traditional bullying. J Adolesc Health 2014 Nov; 55: 602-11.
Ojanen TT, Boonmongkon P, Samakkeekarom R, Samoh N, Cholratana M, Guadamuz TE. Connections between online harassment and offline violence among youth in Central Thailand. Child Abuse Negl 2015; 44: 159-69.
Kwamkanung J, Kaewchinda M. Group Counseling with Stabilization Techniques to Enhance Coping Skills for Cyberbullied Youth. Journal of graduate studies Valaya Alongkorn Rajabhat University 2016; 10: 40-52. Thai.
Sittichai R. Information Technology Behavior Cyberbullying in Thailand: Incidence and Predictors of Victimization and Cyber- Victimization. Asian Social Science [Internet]. 2014 May 30 [cited 2019 Jan 2];10(11). Available from: http://www.ccsenet.org/ journal/index.php/ass/article/view/37495
Tural Hesapcioglu S, Ercan F. Traditional and cyberbullying co-occurrence and its relationship to psychiatric symptoms. Pediatr Int 2017; 59: 16-22.
Hawker DSJ, Boulton MJ. Twenty Years’ Research on Peer Victimization and Psychosocial Maladjustment: A Meta-analytic Review of Cross-sectional Studies. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2000; 41: 441-55.
Gini G, Pozzoli T. Association between bullying and psychosomatic problems: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2009; 123: 1059-65.
Bouffard LA, Koeppel MDH. Sex Differences in the Health Risk Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Bullying Victimization. Victims & Offenders 2017; 12: 549-65.
Esbensen F-A, Carson DC. Consequences of Being Bullied: Results From a Longitudinal Assessment of Bullying Victimization in a Multisite Sample of American Students. Youth & Society 2009 ; 41: 209-33.
Hamm MP, Newton AS, Chisholm A, Shulhan J, Milne A, Sundar P, et al. Prevalence and Effect of Cyberbullying on Children and Young People: A Scoping Review of Social Media Studies. JAMA Pediatr 2015; 169: 770-7.
van Geel M, Vedder P, Tanilon J. Relationship Between Peer Victimization, Cyberbullying, and Suicide in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr 2014; 168: 435-42.
Sourander A, Brunstein Klomek A, Ikonen M, Lindroos J, Luntamo T, Koskelainen M, et al. Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated With Cyberbullying Among Adolescents: A Population-Based Study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010; 67: 720-8.
Grinshteyn E, Yang YT. The Association Between Electronic Bullying and School Absenteeism Among High School Students in the United States. J Sch Health 2017; 87: 142-9.
Amaraphibal, A. Cyber-bullying victimization among youths: Risk factor,mental health impacts and reporting to the third person. Research Methodology & Cognitive Science, Vol. 14, No. 1 January - June 2016. Thai.
Wachs S, Jiskrova GK, Vazsonyi AT, Wolf KD, Junger M. A cross-national study of direct and indirect effects of cyberbullying on cybergrooming victimization via self-esteem. Psicología Educativa 2016; 22: 61-70.
Tudkuea T. A Development of Cyber Bullying Behavioral Indicators for Youth in Songkhla Province (dissertation). Song Khla: Prince of Songklha University; 2013: 125Thai.
Topcu Ç, Erdur-Baker Ö. The Revised Cyber Bullying Inventory (RCBI): validity and reliability studies. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2010; 5: 660-4.
Lam LT, Li Y. The validation of the E-Victimisation Scale (E-VS) and the E-Bullying Scale (E-BS) for adolescents. Comput Hum Behav 2013; 29: 3-7.
Doane AN, Kelley ML, Chiang ES, Padilla MA. Development of the Cyberbullying Experiences Survey. Emerg Adulthood 2013; 1: 207-18.
Gámez-Guadix M, Villa-George F, Calvete E. Psychometric properties of the Cyberbullying Questionnaire (CBQ) among Mexican adolescents. Violence Vict 2014; 29: 232-47.
Stewart RW, Drescher CF, Maack DJ, Ebesutani C, Young J. The Development and Psychometric Investigation of the Cyberbullying Scale. J Interpers Violence 2014 ; 29: 2218-38.
Garaigordobil M. Psychometric Properties of the Cyberbullying Test, a Screening Instrument to Measure Cybervictimization, Cyberaggression, and Cyberobservation. J Interpers Violence 2017; 32: 3556-76.
Willard NE. Appendix L: CyberbullyingNOT-Stopping Online Social Aggression. In: Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Champaign, Ill: Research Press; 2007: 281-4.
Schultze-Krumbholz A, Scheithauer H. Measuring Cyberbullying and Cybervictimisation by Using Behavioral Categories - The Berlin Cyberbullying Cybervictimisation Questionnaire (BCyQ). In: COST Workshop “Cyberbullying: Definition and Measurement Issues.” Vilnius; 2009.
Sumter SR, Valkenburg PM, Baumgartner SE, Peter J, van der Hof S. Development and validation of the Multidimensional Offline and Online Peer Victimization Scale. Comput Hum Behav 2015; 46: 114-22.
Lee J, Abell N, Holmes JL. Validation of Measures of Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization in Emerging Adulthood.Research on Social Work Practice [Internet]. 2015 Mar 31 [cited 2017 Jun 7]; Available from: http:// rsw.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/10497315 15578535
Del Rey R, Casas JA, Ortega-Ruiz R, Schultze- Krumbholz A, Scheithauer H, Smith P, et al. Structural validation and cross-cultural robustness of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire. Comput Hum Behav 2015; 50: 141-7.
Herrera-L?pez M, Casas JA, Romera EM, Ortega-Ruiz R, Del Rey R. Validation of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire for Colombian Adolescents. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2017; 20: 117- 25.
Shapka JD, Maghsoudi R. Examining the validity and reliability of the cyber-aggression and cyber-victimization scale. Comput Hum Behav 2017; 69: 10-7.
Singchangchai P. Principles and using multivariate statistics analysis for nursing research. Song Khla: Chan Meung Karn Pim; 2006. Thai.
Thompson B. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: understanding concepts and applications. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2004: 195.
Gorsuch RL. Factor analysis. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, N.J: L. Erlbaum Associates; 1983: 425.
Hongladarom K. Discourses on ethnic minorities in Thailand: a study of the relationship between form and meaning (dissertation). Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University; 2000. 100 p. Thai.
Wanaspong J. Racism in the presentation of LAOS in Thai newspapers (dissertation). Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University. 173 p. Thai.
Kanto J. Nationalism and racism in the Thai animated movies khan kluay I and II (dissertation). Chiang Mai: Chiang Mai University; 2014: 66. Thai.
Chinakarapong O. Conceptual Metaphor of Thai Curse Words. J Humanities Naresuan University 2014; 11: 57-76.
Na Pattalung, PS. [Petch Lanna Book 1]. Chiang Mai: Suriwong Karn Pim; 1963. Thai.
Ungpakorn GJ. Thailand is an extremely racist society. In: Uglytruth-Thailand [Internet]. [Cited 2018 Dec 1]. Available from: https:// uglytruththailand.wordpress.com/2014/09/13/ thailand-is-an-extremely-racist-society
Opakul M. [Origins of the word “Jek”]. In: Art & Culture Magazine [Internet]. [cited 2018 Dec 1]. Available from: https://www.silpa-mag.com/ club/art-and-culture/article_18158. Thai.