Disseminated intravascular coagulation: DIC

Main Article Content

Nabhat Noparatkailas
EKARAT RATTARITTAMRONG

Abstract

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a hemostasis disorder causes by an activation of coagulation system lead to microvascular thrombosis and multiple organ failure. In addition, this process causes consumption of platelets and coagulation factors lead to bleeding. There are many causes of DIC. The treatment of DIC including treatment of underlying cause, blood transfusion therapy if bleeding, and consider anticoagulant in case of thrombosis.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
บทความฟื้นวิชา (Literature review)

References

1. Levi M, van der Poll T. A short contemporary history of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2014;40:874-80.
2. Gando S, Levi M, Toh CH. Disseminated intravascular coagulation. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2016;2:16037.
3. Robboy SJ, Major MC, Colman RW, Minna JD. Pathology of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Analysis of 26 cases Hum Pathol. 1972;3:327-43.
4. Mant MJ, King EG. Severe, acute disseminated intravascular coagulation. Am J Med. 1979;67:557-63.
5. Levi M. Diagnosis and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Int J Lab Hematol. 2014;36:228-36.
6. Levi M, Sivapalaratnam S. Disseminated intravascular coagulation: an update on pathogenesis and diagnosis. Expert Rev Hematol. 2018;11:663-72.
7. Wada H, Thachil J, Di Nisio M, Mathew P, Kurosawa S, Gando S, et al. Guidance for diagnosis and treatment of DIC from harmonization of the recommendations from three guidelines. J Thromb Haemost. 2013;11:761-7.
8. Taylor FB Jr, Toh CH, Hoots WK, Wada H, Levi M. Scientific subcommittee on Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). Towards definition, clinical and laboratory criteria, and a scoring system for disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromb Haemost. 2001;86:1327–30.
9. Bakhtiari K, Meijers JC, de Jonge E, Levi M. Prospective validation of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis scoring system for disseminated intravascular coagulation. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:2416-21.
10. Grottke O, Braunschweig T, Spronk HM, Esch S, Rieg AD, van Oerle R, et al. Increasing concentrations of prothrombin complex concentrate induce disseminated intravascular coagulation in a pig model of coagulopathy with blunt liver injury. Blood. 2011;118:1943-51.
11. Simpson E, Lin Y, Stanworth S, Birchall J, Doree C, Hyde C. Recombinant factor VIIa for the prevention and treatment of bleeding in patients without haemophilia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012:CD005011.
12. Jaimes F, De La Rosa G, Morales C, Fortich F, Arango C, Aguirre D, et al. Unfractioned heparin for treatment of sepsis: A randomized clinical trial (The HETRASE Study). Crit Care Med. 2009;37:1185-96.
13. Sakuragawa N, Hasegawa H, Maki M, Nakagawa M, Nakashima M. Clinical evaluation of low-molecular-weight heparin (FR-860) on disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)—a multicenter co-operative double-blind trial in comparison with heparin. Thromb Res. 1993;72:475–500.
14. Samama MM, Cohen AT, Darmon J-Y, Desjardins L, Eldor A, Janbon C, et al. A Comparison of enoxaparin with placebo for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:793-800.
15. Warren BL, Eid A, Singer P, Pillay SS, Carl P, Novak I, et al. High-dose antithrombin III in severe sepsis: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;286:1869-78.
16. Kienast J, Juers M, Wiedermann CJ, Hoffmann JN, Ostermann H, Strauss R, et al. Treatment effects of high-dose antithrombin without concomitant heparin in patients with severe sepsis with or without disseminated intravascular coagulation. J Thromb Haemost. 2006;4:90-7.
17. Wiedermann CJ, Kaneider NC. A systematic review of antithrombin concentrate use in patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation of severe sepsis. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2006;17:521-6.
18. Gando S, Saitoh D, Ishikura H, Ueyama M, Otomo Y, Oda S, et al. A randomized, controlled, multicenter trial of the effects of antithrombin on disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients with sepsis. Crit Care. 2013;17:R297.
19. Abraham E, Reinhart K, Opal S, Demeyer I, Doig C, Rodriguez AL, et al. Efficacy and safety of tifacogin (recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor) in severe sepsis: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003;290:238-47.
20. Bernard GR, Vincent J-L, Laterre P-F, LaRosa SP, Dhainaut J-F, Lopez-Rodriguez A, et al. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:699-709.
21. Dhainaut JF, Yan SB, Joyce DE, Pettilä V, Basson B, Brandt JT, et al. Treatment effects of drotrecogin alfa (activated) in patients with severe sepsis with or without overt disseminated intravascular coagulation. J Thromb Haemost. 2004;2:1924-33.
22. Abraham E, Laterre P-F, Garg R, Levy H, Talwar D, Trzaskoma BL, et al. Drotrecogin alfa (activated) for adults with severe sepsis and a low risk of death. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:1332-41.
23. Nadel S, Goldstein B, Williams MD, Dalton H, Peters M, Macias WL, et al. Drotrecogin alfa (activated) in children with severe sepsis: a multicentre phase III randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369:836-43.
24. Ranieri VM, Thompson BT, Barie PS, Dhainaut JF, Douglas IS, Finfer S, et al. Drotrecogin Alfa (activated) in adults with septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:2055-64.
25. Aoki N, Matsuda T, Saito H, Takatsuki K, Okajima K, Takahashi H, et al. A comparative double-blind randomized trial of activated protein C and unfractionated heparin in the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Int J Hematol. 2002;75:540-7.
26. Saito H, Maruyama I, Shimazaki S, Yamamoto Y, Aikawa N, Ohno R, et al. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (ART-123) in disseminated intravascular coagulation: results of a phase III, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:31-41.
27. Yamakawa K, Aihara M, Ogura H, Yuhara H, Hamasaki T, Shimazu T. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin in severe sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Thromb Haemost. 2015;13:508-19.
28. Yoshimura J, Yamakawa K, Ogura H, Umemura Y, Takahashi H, Morikawa M, et al. Benefit profile of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin in sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation: a multicenter propensity score analysis. Crit Care. 2015;19:78.
29. Vincent JL, Francois B, Zabolotskikh I, Daga MK, Lascarrou JB, Kirov MY, et al. Effect of a recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin on mortality in patients with sepsis-associated coagulopathy: The SCARLET Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019;321:1993-2002.
30. Fourrier F. Severe sepsis, coagulation, and fibrinolysis: dead end or one way? Crit Care Med. 2012;40:2704-8.
31. Avvisati G, Büller H, Cate J, Mandelli F. Tranexamic acid for control of haemorrhage in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Lancet. 1989;334:122-4.
32. Shakur H, Roberts I, Bautista R, Caballero J, Coats T, Dewan Y, et al. Effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and blood transfusion in trauma patients with significant haemorrhage (CRASH-2): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;376:23-32.
33. Roberts I SH, Afolabi A, Brohi K, Coats T, Dewan Y, Gando S, et al. The importance of early treatment with tranexamic acid in bleeding trauma patients: an exploratory analysis of the CRASH-2 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;377:1096-101.