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Dermal toxicity causes by several reasons such as air pollution, exposures to extremely high or low-pH chemicals, x- or gamma-rays, sunlight, and cosmetics. Duration and amount of exposure to any substances are additional reasons of dermal toxicity. Therefore, the testing of dermal toxicity is required as a risk-benefit assessment of a topical product for human safety. Dermal toxicity testing can be classified according to different impacts of the test substance by ascending severities as follows: irritation, sensitization, corrosion, acute dermal toxicity, subchronic dermal toxicity, and chronic dermal toxicity, respectively. Herewith the guidelines and precautions for testing and evaluation of each levels of the dermal toxicity in experimental animals have been reviewed.
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