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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disorder associated with an increase of both oxidative stress and free radicals,and subsequently damage to cells and tissues. Normally, the body has defense systems for scavenging free radicalsand decreasing oxidative stress. The antioxidative systems consist of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems.The enzymatic system, particularly, plays an important role in free radical scavenging. Therefore, alterations ofgenes and enzymes related antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathioneperoxidase (GPx) are present in DM. Many studies have shown that expression of genes and activities of enzymesrelated antioxidants in diabetes patients and diabetes induced mice/rat are positively or negatively modified.However, at present, there is no strong evidence supporting how diabetes mellitus influences the antioxidativesystem and oxidative stress. These modifications depend on type of diabetes, developmental duration of diabetes,gender, age and the responses of cells and tissues against the disease stages. The different type and varieties ofdiabetes induced mice/rat strains also lead to different results. Therefore, understanding the regulatory mechanismof these genes and enzymes involved enzymatic system of antioxidation are necessary and important for futureinvestigation and treatment of diabetes.
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