Screening of Medical Plants Extracts for Larvicidal Activity against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

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Pisit Poolprasert
Weerayut Pama
Yuttasak Chammui
Wisanu Thongchai

Abstract

Introduction: Culex quinquefasciatus (F. Culicidae) is involved in transmission of the fi larial
nematode, Wuchereria bancrofti, which is a seriously problem in several tropical and subtropical
countries. Plant extracts, especially essential oils have been used as minor natural resource of insec
ticides. They constitute a goodsource of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic
products. To evaluate the larvicidal effects of the different plant extracts, Cx. quinquefasciatus larval
stage were tested in this study. Methods: Effi cacy of 21 essential oils extracted from steam distillation
was screened against fi larial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus, for their larvicidal activity at the concentration
of 1,000 ppm in a preliminary study. The 3rd-4th instar larvae of Culex mosquito were exposed to
extracted oils at different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm). Results: Of these, nine oils viz.
kaempfer oil, holy basil oil, chinese chives oil, galanga oil, turmeric oil, dark blue temu oil, citronella
grass oil, kaffi r lime oil and sweet basil oil exhibited 100%larvicidal activity at 1,000 ppm. These nine
oils were screened further against Cx. quinquefasciatus, for their larvicial effect at different concentra
tions (25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm). Percentage mortality was determined after 24 hours exposure. The
highest potential was established from kaempfer, followed by turmeric, holy basil, chinese chives,
galanga, dark blue temul, kaffi r lime, citronella grass and sweet basil, with LC50 values of 13.29, 17.54,
18.74, 20.59, 25.18, 25.93, 63.22, 68.34 and 71.38 ppm, respectively. Conclusion: Regarding these
results, these oils could be used to develop a new formulation to control mosquito-borne disease
vectors.

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