Inhibitory effect of Rosmarinus offi cinalis L., Senna alata (L.) Roxb., Acalypha indica L., and Elephantopus scaber L. against herpes simplex viruses

Main Article Content

Raenu Yucharoen
Yingmanee Tragoolpua

Abstract

Introduction: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is pathogenic to human. This study demonstrated
anti-herpes simplex virus activity of ethanol extract of Rosmarinus offi cinalis L., Senna alata (L.) Roxb.,
Acalyphaindica L., and Elephantopus scaber L. on green monkey kidney cells. They are widely
used in pharmaceutical products and in traditional medicine for anti-infl ammatory, anti-tumor,
antimicrobial, and antiseptic activity. Methods: In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of
these plants, viral adsorption and viral replication were performed. Results: These results indicated
that ethanol extract of S. alata and A. indica did not affect HSV during viral adsorption and after viral
adsorption. The cells were treated on HSV-1F and HSV-2G during infection by the ethanol extract of
E. scaber with therapeutic indices (TI) of 0.35 and 0.54, respectively. Ethanol extract of R. offi cinalis
demonstrated higher inhibitory effects during HSV-1F and HSV-2G adsorption with TI of 1.23 and 57.38
while TI of 9.7 and 93.67 were observed after HSV-1 and HSV-2 adsorption. Conclusion: This study
demonstrated that the ethanol extract of R. offi cinalis and E. scaber showed higher inhibitory activity
on HSV-2G than HSV-1F. The rosemary extract showed the highest activity when tested after HSV-2G
adsorption. Therefore, this study will be useful for anti-HSV drug development from herb, R. offi cinalis
and E. scaber.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Research Articles

References

Adedayo O, Anderson WA, Moo-Young M, et al. Phytochemistry and Antibacterial Activity of Senna alata Flower. Pharma Biol2001; 39 (6): 408-412.
A’ lvarez AL, Barrio GD, Kouri V, et al. In vitroanti-herpetic activity of an aqueous extract from the plant Phyllanthus orbicularis. Phytomedicine 2009; 12: 960-966.
Bozin B, Mimica-Dukic N, Samojlik I, Jovin E. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of rosemary and sage (Rosmarinusoffi cinalis L. and Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) Essential Oils. J Agr Food Chem 2007; 55(19): 7879-7885.
Carvalho RN, Moura LS, Rosa PTV, Meireles MAA. Supercritical fluid extraction from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis): Kinetic data, extracts global yield, composition, and antioxidant activity. J Supercrit Fluid 2005; 35: 197-204.
Chaliewchalad P, Thongwai N, Tragoolpua Y. Inhibitory effect of Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn.) Kurz. and Stemona tuberosa (Lour.) extracts on herpes simplex virus infection. J MedPlants Res 2013; 7(2)76- 84.
Cheng HY, Lin TC, Ishimaru K, et al. In vitroantiviral activity of prodelphinidin B-2 3 3’ -di-O-gallate from Myrica rubra. Planta Med 2003; 69: 953-956.
Collier L, Oxford J. The herpesviruses: general-properties. In: Collier LH, Oxford JS. Editors. Human Virology. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2000. 131-140.
Crumpacker CS, Schnipper LE, Marlowe SI, et al. Resistance to antiviral drugs of herpes simplex virus isolated from a patient treated with acyclovir. NEJM 1982; 306: 343-346.
Davidson AJ. Comparative analysis of the genome In: Arvin A, Campadellifi ume G, Mocarski E, Moore PS, Roizman B, Whitley R, Yamanishi K, editors, Human Herpesviruses Biology Therapy, Immunoprophylaxis. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2000. 10-26.
Doughari JH, Okafor B. Antimicrobial activity of Senna alata Linn. East Cent Afr J Pharm Sci 2007; 10:17-21.
Elion GB. Acyclovir discovery, mechanism of action and selectivity. J Med Virol 1993;41 Suppl 1: 2-6.
Flück H. Medicinal plants: An authentic guide to natural remedies. Hong kong: W. Foulsham Co. Ltd; 1988.Govindarajan M, Jebanesan A, Reetha D, et al. Antibacterial activity of Acalypha indicaL. Eur Rev for Med Pharmacol Sci 2008; 12: 299-302.
Jagathee SD, Deepa J, Sheik JA, Ranganathan P. Acalypha indica L. an important medical plant: a review of its traditional uses and pharmacological properties. Int J Bot 2013; 3(1): 19-22.
Jenny A, Saha D, Paul S, et al. Antibacterial activity of aerial part of extract of Elephantopus scaber Linn. Bull Pharm Res 2012; 2: 38-41.
Kiani SJ, Shahrabadi S, Ataei A, Sajjadi N. Peganum harmala seed extract can prevent HSV-1 replication in vitro. Indian Vet J 2008; 2(4): 11-16.
Koch C, Reichling J, Schneele J, Schnitzler P. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2. Phytomedi-cine 2008; 15(1-2): 71-78.
Mahmoud AA, AL-Shihry SS, Son BW. Diterpe-noid quinones from Rosemary (Rosmari-nus offi cinalis L.). Phytochemistry 2005; 66(14): 1685-1690.
Marchetti M, Longhi C, Conte MP, et al. Lactofer-rin inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 adsorption to vero cells. Antiviral Res1996; 229: 221-231.
Moreno S, Scheyer T, Romano CS, Vojnov AA. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of rosemary extracts linked to their polyphe-nol composition. Free Radical Res 2006; 40(2): 223-231.
Nolkemper S, Reichling J, Stintzing F, et al. Anti-viral effect of aqueous extracts from Species of the Lamiaceae family against herpes simplex virus Type 1 and type 2 in vitro. Planta Med 2006; 72: 1378-1382.
Ody P. The complete guide medicinal herbal. London: Dorling Kindersley Limited; 2000.
Ouattara B, Simard RE, Holley RA, Piette GJP, Begin A. Antibacterial activity of selected fatty acids and essential oils against six meat spoilage organisms. Int J of Food Microbiol 1997; 37: 155-162.
Reed LJ, Muench H. 1938. A simple method of estimating fifty percent end points. Am J Hyg 1938; 27:493-501
Sacchetti G, Maietti S, Muzzoli M, et al. Comparative evaluation of 11 essential oils of different origin as functional antioxidants, antiradicals and antimicrobials in foods. Food Chemistry 2005; 91: 621-632.
Schnitzler P, Schuhmacher A, Astani A, Reichling J. Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses. Phytomedi-cine 2008; 15: 734-740.
Schuhmacher A, Reichling J, Schnitzler P. Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 in vitro. Phytomedicine2003; 10: 504-510.
Swapnil G, Avinash I, Aniket, G, et al. Antiviral activity of mucosynthesized silver nanoparticles against herpes simplex virus and human parainfluenza virus type 3. Int J Nanomed 2013; 6: 4303-4314.
Wang L, Jian S, Nan P, Liu J, Zhong Y. Che mical composition of the essential oil of Elephantopus scaber from southern China. Z Naturforsch C 2004; 59: 327-329
Wang W, Zu Y, Fu Y, et al. In vivo antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 activity of Phellodendron amurense Rupr. from China. Am J Chin Med 2009; 37(1): 195-203.