Inhibitory effect of Rosmarinus offi cinalis L., Senna alata (L.) Roxb., Acalypha indica L., and Elephantopus scaber L. against herpes simplex viruses

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Raenu Yucharoen
Yingmanee Tragoolpua


Introduction: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is pathogenic to human. This study demonstrated
anti-herpes simplex virus activity of ethanol extract of Rosmarinus offi cinalis L., Senna alata (L.) Roxb.,
Acalyphaindica L., and Elephantopus scaber L. on green monkey kidney cells. They are widely
used in pharmaceutical products and in traditional medicine for anti-infl ammatory, anti-tumor,
antimicrobial, and antiseptic activity. Methods: In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of
these plants, viral adsorption and viral replication were performed. Results: These results indicated
that ethanol extract of S. alata and A. indica did not affect HSV during viral adsorption and after viral
adsorption. The cells were treated on HSV-1F and HSV-2G during infection by the ethanol extract of
E. scaber with therapeutic indices (TI) of 0.35 and 0.54, respectively. Ethanol extract of R. offi cinalis
demonstrated higher inhibitory effects during HSV-1F and HSV-2G adsorption with TI of 1.23 and 57.38
while TI of 9.7 and 93.67 were observed after HSV-1 and HSV-2 adsorption. Conclusion: This study
demonstrated that the ethanol extract of R. offi cinalis and E. scaber showed higher inhibitory activity
on HSV-2G than HSV-1F. The rosemary extract showed the highest activity when tested after HSV-2G
adsorption. Therefore, this study will be useful for anti-HSV drug development from herb, R. offi cinalis
and E. scaber.


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