Anti-anxiety Activity, Acute Toxicity and Cytotoxic Property of Extract of Clausena harmandiana (Pierre) Leaves

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Prapaipat Klungsupya
Thanchanok Muangman
Krittiya Thisayakorn
Sareeya Reungpathanapong
Kusol Iamsub
Jeerayu Thongdon-A
Nava Suthepakul

Abstract

Introduction: Anxiety is one of the most common disorders of central nervous system (CNS).
It is a state of excessive fear characterized by motor tension, sympathetic hyperactivity, apprehension
and vigilance syndromes. During this decade, anxiety affects one-eighth of the total population of the
world particularly in developed countries. Various types of herbal medicines have been used as
anxiolytic drugs in different parts of the world. The purpose of present study was to evaluate anxioly
tic effect of alcoholic extract of Clausena harmandiana (Pierre) leaves as well as its acute toxicity and
cytotoxicity. Methods: The anti-anxiety activity was determined by light-dark exploration method in
mice. Acute toxicity of C. harmandiana extract was evaluated in Wistar rats.The acute toxicity study
was carried based on OECD guideline 420 and fi xed dosage was adopted to 15,000 mg/kg. The MTT
assay was carried out to evaluate the cellular toxicity activity of C. harmandiana on TK6 (human
lymphoblasts), L929 (mouse fi broblasts) and Caco-2 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells). Results:
The signifi cant anti-anxiety activity of C. harmandiana extract was found when tested at 500 mg/kg.
The acute toxicity suggest the oral LD50 of C. harmandiana extract is greater than 15,000 mg/kg in rats
of both sexes. According to IC50 obtained from the MTT test, C. harmandiana extract was potentially
toxic to TK6 cells (IC50 = 29.98±4.52 μg/ml) and potentially harmful to L929 (IC50 = 679.23±35.04 μg/
ml) and Caco-2 (IC50 = 537.65±11.89 μg/ml) cells. Conclusion: Regarding results on light-dark task
and acute oral toxicity tests performed in animals, it can be summarized that C. harmandiana extract
possesses anti-anxiety property and it is safe to use. Cytotoxicity test indicates greater sensitivity of
C. harmandiana extract to cancer cells (Coco-2) than to normal cells (L929).

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