Superoxide Anion Scavenging Activity and Mitochondrial toxicity of Various Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) Seed Coat Extracts

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Thanchanok Muangman
Prapaipat Klungsupya
Jirawat Eiamwat
Intira Petchtubtim
Jeerayu Thongdon-A


Introduction: Current research concentrates on pharmaceuticals that emphasis with compound
from natural products or their derivatives. Tamarind seed coat is also well known in health benefi ts
such as anti-oxidant activity, anti-infl ammation and anti-diabetic but anti-cancer is rarely. Thus, this
study was to investigate the extraction condition and effects on cellular toxicity of Tamarind seed coat.
Methods: Extractions with super critical CO2 with ethanol co-solvent as well as with ethanol and water
extraction were carried out. The effects of Tamarind seed coat extracts on superoxide anion scaveng
ing activity and mitochondrial toxicity were determined. The supercritical extraction was performing with
various ethanol co-solvent. The solvent extracts were obtained from 50 and 95% ethanol and water
used as a polar phase of extraction. Seven extracts were obtained and free radical scavenging activ
ity was determined by superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity assay. The mitochondrial toxicity was
analyzed by mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity (WST assay) and mitochondrial membrane potential
(MMP assay). Results: All extracts exhibited high potential of superoxide anion scavenging activity
over the IC50 range <5-25 μg/ml. WST assay was analyzed on various cells culture as well as Caco-
2, HepG2, Hela, L929 and HK-2. The MMP assay was further investigated on Hela cells by fl uorescence
technique. Interestingly, the tamarind seed coat with water extract showed the highest toxicity to
cancer cells but not to normal cells. The IC50 of water extract that exhibited on Caco-2, HepG2
andHela cells were 99.86, 81.15 and 15.06 μg/ml, respectively. The IC50 on normal cells (L929 and
HK-2) showed at 444.16 and over 1,000 μg/ml. The toxicity of water extract on mitochondrial membrane
was strongly as valinomycin (chemotherapeutic agent). Conclusion: From our fi ndings it was conclude
that tamarind seed coat extract from water may have strong toxic effect on cancer cells via mitocho
ndrial membrane degradation while no toxic effect on normal cells.


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