Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) Seed Flour Prepared by Fat Extraction of Rambutan Seeds with SC-CO2

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Jirawat Eiamwat
Sorada Wanlapa
Tuanta Sematong
Sareeya Reungpatthanapong
Wimolsri Phanthanapatet
Nantaprecha Hankhuntod
Sukit Kampruengdet

Abstract

Introduction: Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) seeds are waste byproduct from fresh
consumption to fruit canning industry. This seed waste contains high amounts of fat (14-41%) and
carbohydrate (28-46%). After fat removal, the defatted material could be potentially used as a fl our
alternative for food applications. The aim of this study was to produce fl our from rambutan seeds by
fat extraction with SC-CO2. The defatted fl our obtained was characterized by some selected properties
and evaluated for potential toxicity following acute oral exposure in rats. Methods: Fat was extracted
from ground rambutan seeds by SC-CO2 at 350 bar and 45 °C. Defatted fl our samples were determined
for proximate compositions, amylose content, paste viscosity by using RVA and evaluated for acute
oral toxicity. Results: Ninety percent of the total rambutan fat was extracted by SC-CO2, comparable
to that of hexane extraction. Defatted rambutan seed fl our had high contents of protein (10.07%),
carbohydrate (87.04%) and amylose (32.16%). Fat extraction resulted in higher RVA viscosity pattern
and exhibited no pasting peak with continual rise in viscosity. Compared with other sources of fl ours,
the defatted rambutan seed fl our exhibited much lower RVA viscosity pattern, suitable to apply in
confectionery formulation. This fl our material was non-toxic at 15000 mg/kg in acute oral toxicity
testing. Conclusion: SC-CO2 was capable of removing 90% of total fat available in rambutan seeds.
Defatted rambutan seed fl our contained high protein and carbohydrate, similar to those of all purpose
wheat fl our. Fat removal of rambutan seeds using SC-CO2 extraction produced a fl our exhibiting higher
viscosity determined by RVA and continual rise in pattern throughout the RVA cycle. However, the
viscosity pattern of defatted rambutan fl our was lower when compared with rice and wheat fl ours. The
oral acute toxicity showed that the defatted rambutan fl our was safe for consumption. Based on our
results, the defatted rambutan seed fl our could potentially be used as a food ingredient in development
of confectionery products.

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