Microneedles for Skin Vaccination

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Boonnada Pamornpathomkul
Nattawat Natpoolwat
Tanasait Ngawhirunpat

Abstract

Vaccination represents the best method for prevention from infectious diseases. An ideal vaccine is safe, minimally invasive administered and induce a strong protective immune response. The traditional administration of vaccines via hypodermic needle can be painful and cause stress, especially in needle phobic patient. Professional healthcare personnel are needed for the administration of vaccines, and these persons are at high risk of needlestick injuries. Moreover, sharps waste disposal and the reuse of needles are both considerable problems. Skin immunization is a promising alternative to administration of vaccines via the intramuscular and subcutaneous routes. The skin is an attractive organ for vaccination, which target the high density of immunologic antigen-presenting cells residing both within the epidermis and dermis include Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells, respectively. However, the formidable barrier properties of the uppermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, act as a major challenge for successful delivery of vaccine into the skin. The strategy of microneedle involves breach the stratum corneum barrier in order to enable delivery of vaccine through the skin. MNs are microns-sized needles and lengths up to 1 mm. The main advantages of MNs are minimally invasive, mostly pain-free, easy to use, large scale production, and inexpensive cost. Many published studies suggest that vaccination in the skin using a microneedle technique provides improve protective immunity, and simplify for skin vaccination. In this review, we briefly summarized the use of microneedles for the delivery of vaccines and provided examples of its application for skin vaccination. Finally, we give our view on research about safety of the microneedles that is needed to provide microneedle for skin vaccination clinically useful in the near future.

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References

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