Pharmacy practice and pharmacy education in Thailand

Main Article Content

Teeraporn Supapaan
Bee Yean Low
Payom Wongpoowarak
Summana Moolasarn
Claire Anderson

Abstract

This review focuses on the situation of pharmacy practice and pharmacy education in Thailand, which is one of the countries that is transforming its pharmacy degree to the level of Doctor of Pharmacy. Thailand is a Southeast Asian country. The government provides the majority of health-care services, mostly through the Ministry of Public Health. The pharmacy workforce remains insufficient. The pharmacist-to- population ratio is lower than both the Thai government’s strategic goal and the World Health Organisation’s recommendation. Thai pharmacists operate in the following sectors: hospital, community pharmacy, industry and marketing, consumer protection and education. From 2010, all Thai faculties of pharmacy offered only the PharmD program, hence it is called an “all-PharmD” program. Since 2003, the Pharmacy Council of Thailand has decreed that all pharmacy graduates must take a licensure examination to ensure and standardize the quality of pharmacists from different faculties. There also needs to be more collaboration among education, practice and policy to bring about improvements in pharmacy practice. The regulatory agencies should consider the supportive framework that enables pharmacists to provide advanced practice while employing their experience, career structures for progression and growth, and funding for the advanced pharmacy services. It is interesting to see how the 6-year PharmD graduates, who are expected to have greater competence than prior BPharm graduates, will influence pharmacy practice. Despite several hurdles and barriers, the transition in Thai pharmacy education has the potential to support advancements in practice.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Review Article

References

Ameri A, Salmanizadeh F, Bahaadinbeigy K (2020). Tele-pharmacy: A new opportunity for consultation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Health Policy Technol 9(3): 281-282.

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (2016). Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree. Retrieved 5 May 2016, from http://www.aacp.org/resources/student/pharmacyforyou/documents/pharmd.pdf.

Anderson C (2013). Education trends, innovations and transformations - case studies. 2013 FIDEd Global Education Report. A Bruno. The Natherlands, International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP): 24-33.

Anderson C, Bates I, Brock T, Brown A, Bruno A, Futter B, et al. (2012). Pharmacy education. 2012 FIP Global Pharmacy: Workforce report. D Gal. The Netherlands, International Pharmaceutical Federation: 19-28.

Azhar S, Hassali MA, Ibrahim MI, Ahmad M, Masood I, Shafie AA (2009). The role of pharmacists in developing countries: The current scenario in Pakistan. Hum Resour Health 7(54): doi:10.1186/1478-4491-1187-1154.

Babar Z, Scahill SL, Akhlaq M, Garg S (2013). A bibliometric review of pharmacy education literature in the context of low-to middle-income countries. Currents Pharm Teach Learn 5(3): 218-232.

Bangkok Post. (2021). Local pharmacies to distribute test kits. Retrieved 28 Aug, 2021, from https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand/general/2169419/local-pharmacies-to-distribute-test-kits.

Burapha University (2021). Tuition & fees. Retrieved 13 July, 2021, from https://www.buu.ac.th/.

Cadogan CA, Hughes CM (2021). On the frontline against COVID-19: Community pharmacists' contribution during a public health crisis. Res Social Adm Pharm 17(1): 2032-2035.

Carpenter DM, Hastings T, Westrick S, Rosenthal M, Mashburn P, Kiser S, et al. (2021). Rural community pharmacies’ preparedness for and responses to COVID-19. Res Social Adm Pharm 17(7): 1327-1331.

Chaiyakunapruk N, Jones SM, Dhippayom T, Sumpradit N (2016). Pharmacy practice in Thailand. Pharmacy practice in developing countries: achievements and challenges. A Fatherlrahman, M Ibrahim and A Werthimer. London, Elsevier: 3-19.

Chalongsuk R, Limsupjaroen K, Rattananil P, Sritrakul W, Ratri W (2018). Survey study of the drugstore club member's perception and adaptation of the Ministerial Regulations:: the application for and grant of a license to sell modern drugs B.E. 2556 (2013. Thai Bull Pharm Sci 13(2): 41-51.

Chan RC, Ching PL (2005). Pharmacy practice in Thailand. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 62(1): 1408-1411.

Chanakit T, Low BY, Wongpoowarak P, Moolasarn S, Anderson C (2015). Does a transition in education equate to a transition in practice? Thai stakeholder’s perceptions of the introduction of the Doctor of Pharmacy programme. BMC Medical Education 15: 205.

Chanakit T, Low BY, Wongpoowarak P, Moolasarn S, Anderson C (2015). Hospital pharmacists’ perceptions of the suitability of doctor of pharmacy grad-uates in hospital settings in Thailand. BMC Med Educ 15(181): DOI 10.1186/s12909-12015-10471-12906.

Chantaraskul C (2014). The trend of pharmacy profession in Asia. Retrieved 7 August, 2016, from http://www.fapaasia.org/index.php/fapa-congress.

Chariyasirisuk S, Saokaew S (2020). Inspection of Good Pharmacy Practice among Modern Drugstores in Kamphaengphet. TJPP 12(1): 173-184.

Chiang Mai University (2021). Tuition & fees. Retrieved 1 July, 2021, from https://www.cmu.ac.th/web/.

Chulalongkorn University (2019). Tuition & fees. Retrieved 13 July, 2021, from https://www.reg.chula.ac.th/ NewStudyFee_2563.pdf.

Dalton K, Byrne S (2017). Role of the pharmacist in reducing healthcare costs: current insights. Integrated pharmacy research & practice 6: 37-46.

Elliott RA, Boyd MJ, Tanajewski L, Barber N, Gkountouras G, Avery AJ, et al. (2020). 'New Medicine Service': supporting adherence in people starting a new medication for a long-term condition: 26-week follow-up of a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. BMJ Qual Saf 29(4): 286-295.

Francisco G (2003). Doctor of Pharmacy. Encyclopedia of clinical pharmacy. J Dipiro. New York, Marcel Dekker: 276-281.

Hedima EW, Okoro RN (2021). Telepharmacy: An opportunity for community pharmacists during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sub Saharan Africa. Health policy and technology 10(1): 23-24.

Hou K, Yang H, Ye Z, Wang Y, Liu L, Cui X (2018). Effectiveness of Pharmacist-led Anticoagulation Management on Clinical Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences 20(1): 378-396.

Huachiew Chalermprakiet University (2021). Tuition & fees. Retrieved 13 July, 2021, from https://www.hcu.ac.th/en/.

Inoue Y, Morita Y, Takikawa M, Takao K, Kanamoto I, Sugibayashi K (2015). Future expectations for Japanese pharmacists as compared to the rest of the world. Res Social Adm Pharm 11: 448-458.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (2021). Thailand. Retrieved 18 Aug, 2021, from http://www.healthdata.org/thailand.

Jaisue S (2015). Pharmacy practice in Thailand, Wiley Online Library.

Jeanpeerapong N, Srisuphan V (2020). The evaluation of payment for pharmacists in the Ministry of Public Health. Thai J of Hosp Pharm 30(1): 15-25.

Jitruknatee A, Martro J, Tosanguan K, Doangjai Y, Theantawee W (2020). National drug policies in Thailand: evolution and lessons for the Future. J Health Sci 29(Special issue): S3-S14.

Kanke M, Johns JR, Suriyakrai S, Topark-Ngarm A, Sripanidkulchai B (2012). Academic achievement of Thai pharmacy students in an English-taught program. JAASP 1(2): 78-85.

Kapol N, Maitreemit P, Pongcharoensuk P, Armstrong E (2008). Evaluation of curricula content based on Thai pharmacy competency standards. Am J Pharm Educ 72(1): Article 9.

Karnwareetip S, Surawichai A, Ruanta Y (2016). Health consumer protection officers’ perspective toward the problems and the mechanism of consumer protection involving health products in upper northern thailand. Mahidol Univ J Pharm Sci 43(2): 63-67.

Khon Kaen University (2021). Tuition & fees. Retrieved 13 July, 2021, from Prince of Songkla University.

Kishi DT (2001). Japanese pharmaceutical education: implications for Americans teaching Japanese pharmacy students. Am J Health Syst Pharm 58(11): 1032-1035.

Kittipibul P, Kulsomboon V, Kittisopee T (2006). Pharmaceutical care-based practice of Thai community pharmacists: a focus group study. Retrieved 09 March 2014, from http://thaihp.org/extend.php?option=document_list&page_no=15&c=1&layout=0.

Mahasarakham University (2021). Tuition & fees. Retrieved 13 July, 2021, from https://admission.msu.ac.th/.

Merks P, Jakubowska M, Drelich E, Świeczkowski D, Bogusz J, Bilmin K, et al. (2021). The legal extension of the role of pharmacists in light of the COVID-19 global pandemic. Res Social Adm Pharm 17(1): 1807-1812.

Ministry of Public Health (2020). Ministry of Public Health, Siam Bioscience, SCG and AstraZeneca join forces on COVID-19 vaccine manufacturing for Thailand and South East Asia. Retrieved 28 Aug, 2021, from https://prministry.prd.go.th/ewt_news.php?nid=17894&filename=index.

Mohamed Ibrahim O, Ibrahim RM, Abdel-Qader DH, Al Meslamani AZ, Al Mazrouei N (2020). Evaluation of Telepharmacy Services in Light of COVID-19. Telemedicine and e-Health 27(6): 649-656.

Naresuan University (2021). Tuition & fees. Retrieved 13 July, 2021, from https://www.admission.nu.ac.th/pdf/web/viewer.html?file=pdf/%E0%B8%84%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%98%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%A1%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%B5%E0%B8%A2%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%A8%E0%B8%B6%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%A9%E0%B8%B2%20%E0%B8%9B.%E0%B8%95%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B5.pdf.

Nathisuwan S, Pattharachayakul S, Subongkot S, Doungngern T, Jones SM, Engle JP, et al. (2020). U.S.-Thai Consortium for the development of pharmacy education in Thailand: History, progress, and impact. JACCP: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CLINICAL PHARMACY 3(5): 935-946.

National Health Security Office (2021). Every province will receive at least 40,000 antigen test kits. Retrieved 3 October, 2021, from https://eng.nhso.go.th/view/1/DescriptionNews/Every-province-will-receive-at-least-40000-antigen-test-kits/363/EN-US.

National Statistical Office (2006). Health and welfare survey. Retrieved 7 June, 2016, from www.web.nso.go.th.

National Statistical Office. (2011). Executive summary: the 2010 population and housing census. Retrieved 6 April 2016, from www.popcensus.nso.go.th/file/popcensus-20-12-54.pdf.

Nawanopparatsakul S, Keokitichai S, Wiyakarn S, Chantaraskul C (2009-2010). Challenges of pharmacy education in Thailand. Silpakorn University International Journal 9-10: 19-39.

Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board (2010). Thailand Mellennium Development Goals Report 2009. Bangkok, Thailand.

Paudyal V, Fialová D, Henman MC, Hazen A, Okuyan B, Lutters M, et al. (2021). Pharmacists’ involvement in COVID-19 vaccination across Europe: a situational analysis of current practice and policy. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy 43(4): 1139-1148.

Pharmaceutical Services Negotiating Committe (Psnc) (2021). Advanced Service payments. Retrieved 18 Aug, 2021, from https://psnc.org.uk/funding-and-statistics/funding-distribution/advanced-service-payments/.

Phimarn W, Kaewphila P, Suttajit S, Saramunee K (2015). Depression screening and advisory service provided by community pharmacist for depressive students in university. SpringerPlus 4(470).

Pitaknitinun K, Lawanprasert Y, Vimolkittipong S (2020). Thailand’s legal framework concerning drugs. J Health Sci 29(Special issue): S15-S30.

Pitchayajittipong C, Wongpoowarak P, Tangkiatkumjai M, Supapaan T (2020). Employers and pharmacy graduates’ perspective towards the professional competency of the Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) graduates in an industrial pharmacy program. Isan J Pharm Sci 17(1): 24-37.

Ploylearmsang C, Kanjanasilp J, Kessomboon N, Suttajit S, Suwannaprom P, Sripa S, et al. (2019). Hospital Pharmacy Practice and the Way Forward for Pharmacy Education in Thailand. Can J Hosp Pharm 72(1): 34-41.

Ploylearmsang C, Sookaneknun P, Poophalee T, Pongruea P (2013). Diabetes and hypertencsion screening by pharmacy students in Thai communities. Am J Pharm Educ 77(3): Article 56.

Pongcharoensuk P, Prakongpan S (2012). Centennial pharmacy education in Thailand. J Asian Assoc Schools Pharm 1(1): 8-15.

Prachachat. (2020). Five thousand community pharmacies were forced to close due to they can not comply with the GPP regulation. Retrieved 19 Aug, 2021, from https://www.prachachat.net/marketing/news-417107.

Pramyothin P (2013). Archives of 100 years Pharmacy Profession. Bangkok, Pharmacy for society foundation (PSF).

Prince of Songkla University. (2021). Tuition & fees. Retrieved 13 July, 2021, from https://reg.psu.ac.th/reg/fee/fee_tree_2561.pdf.

Pummangura P, Praphuchaka P, Sookaneknun P, Kanjanasilp J, Somsaard P, Sooksai N, et al. (2012). Systematic review of community pharmacy practice research. Isan J Pharm Sc 8(2): 76-93.

Rangsit University (2021). Tuition & fees. Retrieved 13 July, 2021, from https://www2.rsu.ac.th/info/admissions-fee.

Rouse M, Meštrovic A (2014). Quality assurance of pharmacy education: the FIP Global Framework. The Hague, The Netherlands, International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP).

Sakeena MHF, Bennett AA, Mclachlan AJ (2019). The Need to Strengthen the Role of the Pharmacist in Sri Lanka: Perspectives. Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland) 7(2): 54.

Sakunphanit T (2015). Thailand: universal health care coverage through pluralistic approaches. Retrieved 6 April 2016, from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---soc_sec/documents/publication/wcms_secsoc_6612.pdf.

Sanguansermsri M, Sripalakit P, Saraphanchotiwitthaya A (1998). Doctor of Pharmacy Program. NU Journal 6(2): 94-103.

Saramunee K, Chaiyasong S, Krska J (2011). Public health reles for community pharmacy: contrasts and similarities between England and Thailand. IJPS 7(2).

Siam University (2021). Tuition & fees. Retrieved 13 July, 2021, from https://siam.edu/tuition-fees/.

Silpakorn University. (2021). Tuition & fees. Retrieved 13 July, 2021, from https://admission.su.ac.th/file-faculty/08_sutcas63-Pharmacy.pdf.

Sirirak S (2010). Human resources for health country profile Thailand. Retrieved 21 March, 2014, from http://www.searo.who.int/entity/human_resources/data/tha_profile.pdf.

Sookaneknun P, Rattanachotpanit T, Thowanna B, Senanok R, Somsaard P, Sonhorm U, et al. (2012). Comparison of pharmaceutical care outcomes in chronic disease patients receiving refill prescription between accredited community pharmacies and primary care units, Maha Sarakham Province. Journal of Health Systems Research 6(1): 100-111.

Sookaneknun P, Saramunee K, Rattarom R, Kongsri S, Senanok R, Pinitkit P, et al. (2010). Economic analysis of the diabetes and hypertension screening collaboration between community pharmacies and a Thai government primary care unit. Prim Care Diabetes 4(3): 155-164.

Strategy and Planning Division MOPH (2017). Health at a glance Thailand 2017. Retrieved 4 July, 2021, from https://bps.moph.go.th/new_bps/sites/default/files/health%20at%20a%20glance%20thailand%202017.pdf?fbclid=IwAR1o_poodSCtUQN7js5NKlr3Ff6-K0mz-gcsWccsna5EAaQERx-hGUycINA.

Sub-Committee in Pharmacy Education TPECOT (2014). Past...Present...Future of Pharmacy Education in Thailand. Isan J of Pharm Sc 10(1): 1-15.

Sum ZZ, Ow CJW (2021). Community pharmacy response to infection control during COVID-19. A cross-sectional survey. Res Social Adm Pharm 17(1): 1845-1852.

Sumpradit N, Suttajit S, Hunnangkul S, Wisaijohn T, Putthasri W (2014). Comparison of self-reported professional competency across pharmacy education programs: a survey of Thai pharmacy graduates enrolled in the public service program. Adv Med Educ Pract 5: 347-357.

Supapaan T, Wongpoowarak T, Tangkiatkumjai M (2021). Desirable characteristics and professional competencies of Doctor of Pharmacy graduates in the pharmaceutical care program. Isan J Pharm Sci 17(2): 26-39.

Suttajit S, Suwannaprom P, Eakanunkul S (2018). On account of manpower: pharmacy workforce in the complexity of healthcare system. Chiang Mai, Center for community drug system research and development, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiangmai University.

Suttajit S, Suwannaprom P, Supapaan T, Eakanunkul S, Tangkiatkumjai M, Kongkaew C, et al. (2018). Are we on the right track? Answers from a national survey of Thai graduates' perceptions during the transition to the 6-year PharmD program. Adv Med Educ Pract 9: 713-722.

Suwannaprom P, Suttajit S, Eakanunkul S, Supapaan T, Kessomboon N, Udomaksorn K, et al. (2020). Development of pharmacy competency framework for the changing demands of Thailand's pharmaceutical and health services. Pharm Pract (Granada) 18(4): 2141.

Suwannaprom P, Suttajit S, Plodpai P, Prapaso N, Srisuphan V (2020). Pharmacy Workforce: a Call for Professional Cohesion to Meet the Rising Healthcare Demand. J Health Sci: S141-S152.

Tassaneeyakul W, Suthisisang C, Paeratakul O, Sornlertlamvanich K, Napaporn J, Kongkaew C (2013). The past, current status and future trends of pharmacy education in Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand.

Technical Working Group for Analysis of the Thai Drug System (2002). Thai Drug System. Bangkok, Thai Drug System.

Thai Public Broadcasting Service. (2021). The Pharmacy Student Union of Thailand submitted a letter to the Pharmacy Council and the MoPH requesting that new pharmacists should be sent to work Retrieved 1 Feb, 2022, from https://news.thaipbs.or.th/content/305859.

Thammasat University (2021). Tuition & fees. Retrieved 13 July, 2021, from https://tu.ac.th/.

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean) Secretariat (2017). ASEAN Statistical Report on Millennium Development Goals 2017. Jakarta, The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

The Constituent Assembly in the Capacity of the National Assembly (1967). Drug Act, B.E. 2510 (1967).

The Office of Industrial Economics (2013). Executive summary report: a formulation of strategic plan for the development of Thai pharmaceutical industry. Retrieved 7 April 2016, from https://www.oie.go.th/

The Pharmacy Council of Thailand (2012). The core pharmacy course structure guideline. Retrieved October 10, 2013, from www.pharmacycouncil.org/share/file/file_193.pdf.

The Pharmacy Council of Thailand (2012). The Pharmacy Council Announcement No 4/2012: Curriculum structure for a 6-year PharmD programme. Retrieved 12 Oct, 2015, from http://pharmacycouncil.org/share/file/file_264.pdf.

The Pharmacy Council of Thailand (2017). Pharmacy licensure examination and holding of a license to be a pharmaceutical practitioner (2/2017). Retrieved 22 Aug, 2021, from https://www.pharmacycouncil.org/ index.php?option=content_detail&menuid=0&itemid=1049&catid=1.

The Pharmacy Council of Thailand (2018). The Pharmacy Council Announcement No 65/2018: Curriculum structure for a 6-year PharmD programme. Retrieved 22 Aug, 2021, from https://www.pharmacycouncil.org/index.php?option=content_detail&menuid=68&itemid=1788&catid=0.

The Pharmacy Council of Thailand (2020). Standards of practice and procedures of the telepharmacy (56/2020). Retrieved 27 Aug, 2021, from https://pharmacycouncil.org/index.php?option=content_search&menuid=68.

The Pharmacy Council of Thailand. (2021). Registered pharmacists Retrieved 4 July, 2021, from https://www.pharmacycouncil.org/.

The Pharmacy Council of Thailand (2022). Pharmacy licensure examination and holding of a license to be a pharmaceutical practitioner (1/2022): the second examination for competencies in 3 specialised areas. Retrieved 1 Feb, 2022, from https://plecenter.org/share/file/file_5176.%E0%B8%9B%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B0%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A8%E0%B8%97%E0%B8%B5%E0%B9%881%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B7%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%87%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%AA%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%9AIP2PC2CP2.pdf.

The Royal Thai Government Gazette (2005). Vol 122, Special Part 39 Ngor, dated 25th May 2005, Curriculum standard for undergraduate programs 2005: Office of the Higher Education Commission, Ministry of Education Thailand,. Retrieved 25 June, 2015, from http://www.mua.go.th/users/bhes/ catalog_h/StdEdu/LawBse/03.PDF.

The Royal Thai Government Gazette (2008). Vol 125 Special Part 67 Ngor dated 3rd April, The Pharmacy Council of Thailand’s regulation about accredited pharmacy degree Retrieved March 12, 2021, from www.pharmacycouncil.org/share/file/file_269.pdf.

The Royal Thai Government Gazette (2008). Vol 125, Special Part 67 Ngor, Dated 3rd April 2008, The College of Pharmacotherapy of Thailand (C.Ph.T.), The Pharmacy Council of Thailand. Retrieved 22 Aug, 2021, from http://thaibcp.pharmacycouncil.org/ general/gen-data.php?id=2.

The Royal Thai Government Gazette (2011). Vol 128, Special Part 4 Ngor, Dated 14th Jan 2011, The College of Pharmaceutical and Health Consumer Protection of Thailand (CPHCP), The Pharmacy Council of Thailand. Retrieved 22 Aug, 2021, from https://www.pharmacycouncil.org/index.php?option=content_search&menuid=67.

The Royal Thai Government Gazette (2016). The Ministry of Education: Thailand Qualification Framework (TQF) for Certification of Doctor of Pharmacy degree in Pharmacy 2015 (The 6-year programme). Retrieved 10 Jan 2016.

The Royal Thai Government Gazette (2019). Vol 136, Special Part 42 Ngor, Dated 14th Feb 2019, The College of Herbal Pharmacy of Thailand (C.H.P.T.), The Pharmacy Council of Thailand. Retrieved 22 Aug, 2021, from https://www.pharmacycouncil.org/index.php?option=content_detail&menuid=95&itemid=2124&catid=0

The Royal Thai Government Gazette (2019). Vol 136, Special Part 106 Ngor, dated 29th April 2019, National Health Security Board: other public health care facilities Retrieved 18 Aug, 2021, from http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2562/E/106/T_0015.PDF.

The Royal Thai Government Gazette (2021). Vol 138, Special Part 5 Ngor, Dated 6th Jan 2021, The College of Industrial Pharmacy of Thailand (CIPT) 2020, The Pharmacy Council of Thailand. from https://www.pharmacycouncil.org/index.php?option=content_detail&menuid=96&itemid=2232&catid=0.

The Royal Thai Government Gazette (2021). Vol 138, Special Part 153 Ngor, Dated 9th July 2021, The College of Community Pharmacy of Thailand (C.C.P.T.), The Pharmacy Council of Thailand. Retrieved 22 Aug, 2021, from https://www.pharmacycouncil.org/index.php?option=content_detail&menuid=67&itemid=2370&catid=0.

The Royal Thai Government Gazette (2021). Vol 138, Special Part 153 Ngor, Dated 9th July 2021, The College of Pharmacy Administration of Thailand (CPAT), The Pharmacy Council of Thailand. Retrieved 22 Aug, 2021, from https://www.pharmacycouncil.org/index.php?option=content_detail&menuid=67&itemid=2371&catid=0.

The Royal Thai Government Gazette (2021). Vol 138, Special Part 193 Ngor, dated 20th Aug 2021. Guideline for community pharmacists to distribute Covid-19 antigen test kits (ATK) free of charge to individual person who is at-risk of COVID-19 infection and dispense favipiravir to Covid-19 patients in home isolation. Retrieved 28 Aug 2021, 2021, from https://www.pharmacycouncil.org/index.php?option=content_detail&menuid=68&itemid=2387&catid=0.

The World Health Organization (2013). Transforming and scaling up health professionals' education and training. World Health Organization guidelines 2013. Switzerland, The World Health Organization: 42-43.

Thomas D, Paul MC, C S (2011). Genesis and development of pharmacy education and Pharm D in Asia. Int J Phar Ther 2(2): 61-67.

Traisilanan J, Daosodsai P (2014). Satisfaction with compensation of hospital pharmacists under the Office of the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. Isan J Pharm Sci 10(2): 198-198.

Tunpaiboon N (2020). Industry Outlook 2020-2022 : Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved 19 Aug, 2021, from https://www.krungsri.com/en/research/industry/industry-outlook/Chemicals/phamaceuticals/IO/io-pharmaceuticals-20-th.

Ubon Ratchathani University. (2021). Tuition & fees. Retrieved 13 July, 2021, from https://www.ubu.ac.th/ web/files_up/04f2016072809353061.pdf.

United Nations (2012). Thailand Info. Retrieved 10 March 2016, from http://www.un.or.th/thailand/index.html.

University N (2021). Tuition & fees. Retrieved 13 July, 2021, from https://www.admission.nu.ac.th/pdf/ web/viewer.html?file=pdf/%E0%B8%84%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%98%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%A1%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%B5%E0%B8%A2%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%A8%E0%B8%B6%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%A9%E0%B8%B2%20%E0%B8%9B.%E0%B8%95%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B5.pdf.

University of Phayao (2021). Tuition & fees. Retrieved 13 July, 2021, from https://www.up.ac.th/th/up_news/ admission63/index.html#p=10.

Vlasses PH, Patel N, Rouse MJ, Ray MD, Smith GH, Beardsley RS (2013). Employer expectations of new pharmacy graduates: implications for the pharmacy degree accreditation standards. Am J Pharm Educ 77(3): Article 47.

Watanabe T, Ohtani Y, Yamamoto T, Nemoto Y, Ida Y, Bachynsky JA (2005). Pharmaceutical terms reflecting the change in practice in Japan. Yakuga Zasshi 125(3): 271-281.

Wibulpolprasert S (2010). Thailand Health Profile 2008-2010. Bangkok, Printing Press, The War Veterans Organization of Thailand.

Wongpoowarak P (2002). Pharmaceutical care practice in Thailand. In: The seminar on pharmaceutical care practice in Thailand and Malaysia. Songkla, Thailand.

Wongpoowarak P (2018). Curriculum Development. Thai Pharmacy Education Conference 2018: Current Issues and Trends in Pharmacy Education. Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Wuttipanich T, Kitisopee T (2015). Economic impact assessment on good pharmacy practice regulation in Thai community pharmacy. Thai Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TJPS) 39(3).