Main Article Content
The Liver is a crucial organ to metabolize endogenous substances, dietary, or xenobiotics in the body. Several diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with deterioration of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Turmeric or Curcuma longa is a herbal plant commonly used as a spice and a traditional medicine. The main yellow active compounds of turmeric is curcumin, in which tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) is its active colorless metabolite. The protective effect of both compounds related to lipid and glucose metabolism were presented in both DM and NAFLD. In In vitro anti-diabetic mechanism model, curcumin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and suppressed effect on gluconeogenic gene expression such as phosphoenol pyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in hepatoma cells. Turmeric extract with main active constituents, i.e., curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and ar-turmerone, suppressed an increase of blood glucose level in the KK-Ay mice. THC was reported to reduce plasma glucose, insulin, haemoglobin, and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in the type 2-DM rats with lowering lipid and lipoprotein profiles, and improving HDL cholesterol in the streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Down-regulation of HMG-CoA reductase activity in hypercholesterol treated rats by THC was also reported. Curcumin supplementation lowered lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and improved apolipoprotein profiles in the high fat-fed hamsters. Curcumin increased hepatic lipid–regulating enzyme activity such as fatty acid β-oxidation was noted. Turmeric extract decreased cholesterol synthesis and increased cholesterol conversion into bile acid in the hypercholestrolemic rats via down-regulation of HMG-CoA reductase expression and up-regulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and LDL receptor, resulting in lowering plasma cholesterol level. Though, curcumin and THC have exhibited positive effects on DM and NAFLD, an evidence supporting mechanism to delay progression or manage these diseases is still incomplete. Hence, further studies is required for clarify a key regulatory mechanism for the use of these two compounds in the liver related diseases.
In the case that some parts are used by others The author must Confirm that obtaining permission to use some of the original authors. And must attach evidence That the permission has been included
Aggarwal BB, Harikumar KB. Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin, the anti-inflammatory agent, against neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2009; 41(1): 40-59.
Aggarwal BB, Sundaram c, Malani N, Ichikawa H. Curcumin: the Indian solid gold. Adv Exp Med Biol 2007; 595: 1-75.
Al-Jameil N, Khan FA, Arjumand S, Khan MF, Tabassum H. Associated liver enzymes with hyperlipidemic profile in type 2 diabetes patients. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2014; 7(7): 4345-4349.
American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2012; 35 Suppl 1: S64-S71.
Anand p, Kunnumakkara AB, Newman RA, Aggarwal BB. Bioavailability of curcumin: problems and promises. Mol Pharm 2007; 4(6): 807-818.
Bechmann LP, Hannivoort RA, Gerken G, et al. The interaction of hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism in liver diseases. J Hepatol 2012; 56(4): 952-964.
Birkenfeld AL, Shulman Gl. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatic insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Hepatology 2014; 59(2): 713-723.
Brown MS, Goldstein JL. Multivalent feedback regulation of HMG CoA reductase, a control mechanism coordinating isoprenoid synthesis and cell growth. J Lipid Res 1980; 21(5): 505-517.
Cariou B, Staels B. FXR: a promising target for the metabolic syndrome? Trends Pharmacol Sci 2007; 28(5): 236-243.
Chanpoo M, Petchpiboonthai H, Panyarachun B, Anupunpisit V. Effect of curcumin in the amelioration of pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. J Med Assoc Thai 2010; 93 Suppl 6: S152-S159.
Chattopadhyay I, Biswas K, Bandyopadhyay U, Banerjee RK. Turmeric and curcumin: Biological actions and medicinal applica-tions. Curr Sci India 2014; 87(1): 44-53.
Donnelly KL, Smith Cl, Schwarzenberg SJ, et al. Sources of fatty acids stored เท liver and secreted via lipoproteins เท patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Invest 2015; 115(5): 1343-1351.
El-Masry AA. Potential therapeutic effect of Curcuma longa on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Gio Adv Res J Med Med Sci 2012; 1(4): 91-98.
El-Moselhy MA, Taye A, Sharkawi s s , El-Sisi SF, Ahmed AF. The antihyperglycemic effect of curcumin in high fat diet fed rats. Role of TNF-Ol and free fatty acids. Food Chem Toxicol 2011; 49(5): 1129-1140.
Esatbeyoglu T, Huebbe p, Ernst IM, et al. Curcumin from molecule to biological function. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2012; 51(22): 5308-5332.
Fabbrini E, Sullivan S, Klein S. Obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: biochemical, metabolic, and clinical implications. Hepatology 2010; 51(2): 679-689.
Finucane MM, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ, et al. National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9.1 million participants. Lancet 2011; 377(9765): 557-567.
Frye RF, Zgheib NK, Matzke GR, et al. (2006) Liver disease selectively modulates cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism. Clin Pharm acol Ther 2006; 80(3): 235-245.
Grundy SM. Metabolic syndrome pandemic. Arterioscler Thromb Vase Biol 2008;28(4):629-636.
Hectors TL, Vanparys c, Pereira-Fernandes A, Knapen D, Blust R. Mechanistic evaluation of the insulin response in H4IIE hepatoma cells: new endpoints for toxicity testing? Toxicol Lett 2012; 212(2): 180-189.
Hubscher SG. Histological assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Histopathology 2006; 49(5): 450-465.
Iqbal J, Hussain MM. Intestinal lipid absorption. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2009;296(6): E1183-E1194.
Ireson CR, Jones DJ, Orr S, et al. Metabolism of the cancer chem opreventive agent curcumin in human and rat intestine. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11(1): 105-111.
Jang EM, Choi MS, Jung UJ, et al. Beneficial effects of curcumin on hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in high-fat-fed hamsters. Metabolism 2008; 57(11): 1576-1583.
Jayaprakasha GK, Jagan MRL, Sakariah KK. Chemistry and biological activities of c. longa. Trends Food Sci Tech 2005;16(12): 533-548.
Jiang c, Xie c, Li F, et al. Intestinal farnesoid X receptor signaling promotes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Clin Invest 2015;125(1): 386-402.
Karthikesan K, Pan L, Menon VP. Antihyperlipidemic effect of chlorogenic acid and tetrahydrocurcumin in rats subjected to diabetogenic agents. Chem Biol Interact 2010a; 188(3): 643-650.
Karthikesan K, Pan L, Menon VP. Protective effect of tetrahydrocurcumin and chlorogenic acid against streptozotocin-nicotinamide generated oxid a tive stress induced diabetes. J Fund Foods 2010b; 2(2): 134-142.
Kim T, Davis J, Zhang AJ, He X, Mathews ST. Curcum in activates AMPK and suppresses gluconeogenic gene expression in hepatoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009; 388(2): 377-382.
Krawczyk M, Bonfrate L, Portincasa p. (2010) Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Best P ra d Res Clin Gastroenterol 2010; 24(5): 695-708.
Kuroda M, Mimaki Y, Nishiyama T, et al. (2005) Hypoglycemic effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa L. rhizomes) on genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice. B iol Pharm Bull 2005; 28(5): 937-939.
Leclercq IA, Farrell GC, Sempoux c , dela Pena A, Horsmans Y. (2004) Curcumin inhibits NF-kappaB activation and reduces the severity of experimental steatohepatitis in mice. J Hepatol 2004; 41(6): 926-934.
Lestari ML, Indrayanto G. Curcumin. Profiles Drug Subst Exclp R elat Methodol 2014 39: 113-204.
Lomonaco R, Sunny NE, Bril F, Cusi K. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: current issues and novel treatment approaches. Drugs 2013; 73(1): 1-14.
Loom ba R, S anyal AJ. The global NAFLD epidemic. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013; 10(11): 686-690.
Loria p, Lonardo A, Bellentani S, et al. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular disease: an open question. N utr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2007; 17(9): 684-698.
Marchesini G, Brizi M, Bianchi G, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a feature of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes 2001; 50(8): 1844-1850.
M atsusue K, A ibara D, H ayafuchi R, et al. Hepatic PPARy and LXROl independently regulate lipid accumulation in the livers of genetically obese mice. FEBS Lett 2014; 588(14): 2277-2281.
Mead JR, Irvine SA, Ramji DP. Lipoprotein lipase: structure, function, regulation, and role in disease. J M ol M ed (B erl) 2002; 80(12): 753-769.
Mera Y, Morinaga H, Ohta T, Sasase T. Glucose and lipid metabolism in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii rat. Open Diabetes 2011;4: 55-59.
Meshkani R, Adell K. Hepatic insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Clin Biochem 2009; 42(13-14): 1331-1346.
Mooradian AD. Dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nat Clin P ra d Endocrinol Metab 2009; 5(3): 150-159.
Moore MC, Coate KC, W innick JJ, An z, Cherrington AD. Regulation of hepatic glucose uptake and storage in vivo. A dv N utr 2012; 3(3): 286-294.
Mueller KM, Themanns M, Friedbichler K, et al. Hepatic growth hormone and glucocorticoid receptor signaling in body growth, steatosis and metabolic liver cancer development. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2012; 361(1-2): 1-11.
Na LX, Zhang YL, Li Y, et al. (2011) Curcumin improves insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of rats. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2011; 21(7): 526-533.
Naraslmhan S, Gokulakrlshnan K, Sampathkumar R, et al. Oxidative stress is independently associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes. Clin Biochem 2010; 43(10-11): 815-821.
Nishiyama T, Mae T, Kishida H, et al. Curcuminolds and sesquiterpenolds in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) suppress an increase in blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice. J Agric Food Chem 2005; 53(4): 959-963.
Parekh S, Anania FA. Abnormal lipid and glucose metabolism in obesity: implications for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 2007; 132(6): 2191-2207.
Pari L, Amali DR. Protective role of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) an active principle of turmeric on chloroquine induced hepatotoxicity in rats. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2005; 8(1): 115-123.
Pari L, Murugan p. Changes in glycoprotein components in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetes: influence of tetrahydrocurcumin from Curcuma longa. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2007; 62(1): 25-29.
Rolo AP, Teodoro JS, Palmeira CM. Role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Free Radic Biol Med 2012; 52(1): 59-69.
Rowland A, Miners JO, Mackenzie PI. The UDP glucuronosyltransferases: their role in drug metabolism and detoxification. Int J Blochem Cell Biol 2013; 45(6): 1121-1132.
Seo KI, Choi MS, Jung UJ, et al. Effect of curcumin supplem entation on blood glucose, plasma insulin, and glucose homeostasis related enzyme activities เท diabetic db/db mice. Mol Nutr Food Res 2008; 52(9): 995-1004.
Serviddio G, Blonda M, Bellanti F, et al. Oxysterols and redox signaling เทthe pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Free Radic Res 2013; 47(11): 881-893.
Sorci-Thomas MG, Bhat S, Thomas MJ. Activation of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase by HDL ApoA-l central helices. Clin Lipidol 2009; 4(1): 113-124.
Subramanian S, Chait A. Hypertriglyceridemia secondary to obesity and diabetes. Biochim Biophys Acta 2012; 821(5): 819-825.
Tessari p, Coracina A, Cosma A, Tiengo A. Hepatic lipid metabolism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2009; 19(4): 291-302.
Vera-Ramirez L, Perez-Lopez p, Varela-Lopez A, et al. Curcumin and liver disease. Biofactors 2013; 39(1): 88-100.
Welsh JA, Karpen S, Vos MB. Increasing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among United States adolescents, 1988-1994 to 2007-2010. J Pediatr 2013; 162(3): 496-500. e1.
Xiao c, Lewis GF. Regulation of chylomicron production in humans. Blochim Biophys Acta 2012; 1821(5): 736-746.
Yiu WF, Kwan PL, Wong CY, et al. Attenuation of fatty liver and prevention of hypercholesterolemia by extract of Curcuma longa through regulating the expression of CYP7A1, LDL-receptor, HO-1, and HMGCoA reductase. J Food Sci 2011; 6(3): H80-H89.