Effects of Polycephalomyces nipponicus extract on protein profiles of methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Keywords:Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Polycephalomyces nipponicus, proteomes
The entomopathogenic fungus Polycephalomyces nipponicus has been reported to have both antibacterial and antimalarial activities. Previous studies have shown that the crude mycelial extract is active against several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, the mechanism underlying this antibacterial activity has yet to be elucidated. This study sought to determine which bacterial metabolic pathways or proteins P. nipponicus might be targeting by examining the in vitro effects of crude mycelial extract on MRSA using a gel-based proteomic approach. The MRSA strains DMST 20651 and DMST 20654 were treated with a sub-inhibitory concentration of P. nipponicus Cod-MK1201 mycelium extract (1.5 mg/ml or 0.5 MIC) for 18 hours. The protein extracts were then obtained from the MRSA cells by sonication, and the proteins were separated by 2D polyacrylamide gels. After this, the protein expression profiles of untreated control and extract-treated cells were analyzed by Image Master 2D platinum software for any significant differences. Protein spots of interest were extracted from the gels and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 22 protein spots that were significantly changed in protein expression with a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease relative to the control cells were identified. The analysis of the protein profiles showed a general decrease in the expression of proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production in both strain DMST 20651 and strain DMST 20654. The proteins related to translation were also present at lower levels in both strains, while the expression of stress response proteins was increased. It was postulated that P. nipponicus mycelial extract exerted its antibacterial effects by disrupting energy metabolism and/or translation.
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