The proportion of medium sized manufacturing factories performing medical emergency preparedness and response according to United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (U.S. OSHA) standards


  • Thanthun Sangphoo
  • Naesinee Chaiear
  • Phanumas Krisorn


medical emergency condition, emergency preparedness and response, Occupational safety and health management


A medical emergency is a health condition with harmful effects on the body, which can be unpredictable and even life-threatening. Preparedness for medical emergencies is crucial, and planning for this is one of the roles of occupational safety and health management. However, Occupational safety and health legislation in Thailand does not cover medical emergency preparedness as thoroughly as the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (U.S. OSHA) standards. Medium-sized manufacturing factories are common throughout northeastern Thailand. The objective of this research was to survey medium-sized manufacturing factories in Khon Kaen and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces to determine the proportion that performs medical emergency preparedness and responses following the U.S. OSHA standards. This research was a descriptive study. The research tool was a questionnaire with two parts: (a) characteristics of the factory; and (b) medical emergency preparedness and response comprised of policy-making, procedure preparation, first responder training, and the audit system. The results showed that 2.6% (95% CI =0.6 – 4.0) of the factories were completely prepared to respond to a medical emergency according to U.S. OSHA standards. All factories adhered to international occupational safety and health standards, in addition to Thai legislation, including policies for medical emergency preparedness and response. This study found that having basic life support (BLS) training (following the American Heart Association guidelines) for all programs had the lowest proportion at 3.5% (95% CI =1.2-5.8), the supply of an automated external defibrillator (AED) 6.5% (95% CI =4.6-9.2), and a post-incident auditing system at 9.1% (95% CI=7.5-11.6). In conclusion, medium-sized manufacturing factories which performed complete medical emergency preparedness and response was a small proportion. This issue needs support for development according to U.S. OSHA standards.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Geraut L, Descatha A. Treatment of lifethreatening emergencies in the workplace: need for collaboration between emergency and occupational health services?Resuscitation 2012;83:e65-6.
2. Anderson GS, Gaetz M, Statz C, et al. CPR skill retention of first aid attendants within the workplace. Prehospital Disaster Med 2012;27:312-8.
3. National Library of Medicine (U.S.). Recognizing medical emergencies [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2019 Sep 22]. Available from:
4. Stuhr M, Dethleff D, Weinrich N, et al. [Medical emergency preparedness in Offshore wind farms: New challenges in the German North and Baltic Seas]
Anaesthesist 2016;65:369-79.
5. Ponsonby W, Mika F, Irons G. Offshore industry: medical emergency response in the Offshore oil and gas industry. Occup Med (Lond) 2009;59:298-303.
6. Panchal AR, Berg KM, Kudenchuk PJ, et al. 2018 American Heart Association focused update on advanced cardiovascular life support use of antiarrhythmic drugs during
and immediately after cardiac arrest: an update to the American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation 2018;138:e740-9.
7. Papaleo B, Cangiano G, Calicchia S, et al. 1160 Early defibrillation in workplaces in Italy [Abstract]. Occup Environ Med 2018; 75(Suppl 2):A114.
8. Descatha A, Frederic M, Devere C, et al. Details of the initial management of cardiac arrest occurring in the workplace in a French urban area. Resuscitation 2005;65:301-7.
9. Aromdee H, Yontrising T, Thiencharoen P, et al. Occupational health and safety. In: Chemical safety management manual for small and medium enterprises. Bangkok: Department of Industrial Works; [n.d.]. p. 55-88. (in Thai)
10. Kongtip P, Yoosook W, Chantanakul S. Occupational health and safety management in small and medium-sized enterprises: An overview of the situation in Thailand. Saf Sci 2008;46:1356-68.
11. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Principal emergency response and preparedness [Internet]. 2004 [cited 2019 Oct 22]. Available from:
12. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1910.151: Medical services and first aid [Internet]. 1998 [cited 2019 Oct 24]. Available from:
13. Department of Industrial Works. Number of factories permitted to operate under the Factory Act, B.E. 2535 (A.D. 1992) classified by type at 2019 [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2019 Oct 24]. Available from:
14. Chuan CL, Penyelidikan J. Sample size estimation using Krejcie and Morgan and Cohen statistical power analysis: A comparison. J Penyelid IPBL 2006;7:78-86.
15. Barlett JE, Kotrlik J, Higgins C. Organizational research: determining appropriate sample size in survey research [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2019 Oct 25]. Available from:
16. Gupta T, Aradhya MR, Nagaraj A. Preparedness for management of medical emergencies among dentists in Udupi and Mangalore, India. J Contemp Dent Pr 2008;9:92-9.
17. Jingkai L. Establishment of emergency management system based on the theory of risk management. Procedia Eng 2012;43:108-12.
18. Descatha A, Schunder-Tatzber S, Burgess J, et al. Emergency preparedness and response in occupational setting: a position statement. Front Public Health [Internet]. 2017 Sep 21 [cited 2019 Oct 7]. Available from:
19. Wisittigars B, Siengthai S. Crisis leadership competencies: the facility management sector in Thailand. Facilities 2019;37:881-96.
20. Ministerial regulations on welfare arrangement in workplaces, B.E. 2548 (A.D.2005). Royal Gazette 2005;122(Pt 29 k): 14-8. (in Thai)
21. Mancini ME, Cazzell M, Kardong-Edgren S, et al. Improving workplace safety training using a self-directed CPR-AED learning program. AAOHN J 2009;57:159-67
22. Sirijittthongchai P. Disease control’s employee towards the cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of the automated external defibrillator. JIRGS 2018;7:35-41.
(in Thai) 23. You JS, Joo YS, Chung HS, et al. Implementation of digital signage for nationwide propagation of a public access defibrillation program and nationwide public education. Resuscitation 2013;84:e95-6.
24. Bakke HK, Steinvik T, Angell J, et al. A nationwide survey of first aid training and encounters in Norway. BMC Emerg Med [Internet] 2017 Feb 23 [cited 2019 May 10];17(1):6. Available from:
25. Oliver E, Cooper J, McKinney D. Can first aid training encourage individuals’ propensity to act in an emergency situation? A pilot study. Emerg Med J 2014;31:518-20.
26. Priolcar X. First-aid at workplace-past, current and future. Indian J Occup Environ Med 2012;16:1-2.
27. Partiprajak S, Thongpo P. Retention of basic life support knowledge, self-efficacy and chest compression performance in Thai undergraduate nursing students. Nurse Educ Pract 2016;16:235-41.
28. Lingard H. The effect of first aid training on objective safety behaviour in Australian small business construction firms. Constr Manag Econ 2001;19:611-8.
29. Ishimaru T, Punpeng T, Maiyapakdee C, et al. Survey of the necessary competencies and proficiency of safety officers in Thailand. Ind Health 2020;58:403-13.
30. Jaroenroy T, Chompunth C. An alternative integrated occupational health, safety and environmental management system for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Int J of Geomate 2019;17:84-91.
31. Ussahawanitchakit A, Intakhan A. Audit professionalism, audit independence and audit effectiveness of CPAs in Thailand. Int J Bus Res 2011;11:1-11.






Original Article (บทความวิจัย)