Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance

Authors

  • Araya Khoka Public Health Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Phuket Rajabhat University

Keywords:

antibiotics, bacteria, antibiotic resistance

Abstract

Antibiotics (ATBs) are drugs that inhibit growth or kill bacteria in various mechanisms,such as inhibiting protein synthesis in bacteria, inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, interfering with the function of the cell membrane, and inhibiting the synthesis of genetic material in bacteria. Since the discovery of penicillin in the 1920s, one of the world’s first antibiotics, people succumbed to illness caused by bacterial infections had a high survival rate. While antibiotic researches especially for developing new classes of antibiotics have been continuously conducted, there have been a great number of reports of bacteria that resist to antibiotics. The bacterial resistance is caused mainly by inappropriate use of the antibiotics, taking low doses of antibiotics, stopping antibiotic treatment before completing the duration of therapy, the unnecessary use of antibiotics. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance include the presence of enzymes that inactivates or destroys antimicrobial agents, alteration in the drug target sites, reduced uptake to the antibiotics, and active efflux system to pump out the drug from the cell. The antibiotic resistance can spread easily and quickly among bacteria, beyond the discovery of the new antibiotics, and it become one of the most urgent public health threats in the world. Therefore, everyone contribute in fighting with antibiotic resistance by taking antibiotics only when necessary, or rationally using antibiotics.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Nathwani D. Overview of AMR In: Nathwani D, editor. Antimicrobial stewardship from principles to practice. 1st ed. United Kingdom: British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC). 2018. p.12-26.

Zaman SB, Hussain MA, Nye R, et al. A review on antibiotic resistance: Alarm bells are ringing. Cureus 2017;9(6):e1403.

Uddin BM, Yusuf A, Ratan ZA. A review of superbug: A global threat in health care system. Bangladesh J Infect Dis 2017;4(1):25-8.

Alpert PT. Superbugs: Antibiotic resistance is becoming a major public health concern. Home Health Care

Manag Pract 2016;29(2):130-3.

Kumar S. Morphology of bacteria: textbook of microbiology. 1st ed. London: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers; 2012.

Kumar A, Chordia N. Role of microbes in human health. Appli Microbiol 2017; doi:10.4172/2471-9315.1000131.

Venkova T, Yeo CC, Espinosa M. Editorial: The good, the bad, and the ugly: multiple roles of bacteria in human life.Front Microbiol 2018;9(1702):1-4.

Kapoor G, Saigal S, Elongavan A. Action and resistance mechanisms of antibiotics: A guide for clinicians. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2017;33(3):300-5.

Ullah H, Ali S. Classification of antibacterial agents and their functions. Antibact agents 2017; doi: 10.5772/65630.

Simon AD, Neil H, Metronidazole: an update on metabolism, structure– cytotoxicity and resistance mechanisms. J Antimicrob Chemother 2018;73(2): 265-79.

Ordoñez-Quiroz A, Ortega-Pierres MG, Bazán-Tejeda ML, et al. DNA damage induced by metronidazole in Giardia duodenalis triggers a DNA homologous recombination response. Exp Parasitol 2018;194:24-31.

Dowling AM, Dwyer J, Adley C. Antibiotics: Mode of action and mechanisms of resistance. Nurs Stand 2011;25(42):49-55.

Ruh E, Zakka J, Hoti K, et al. Extendedspectrum β-lactamase, plasmid m e d i a t e d A m p C β- l a c t a m a s e ,

fluoroquinolone resistance, and decreased susceptibility to carbapenems in Enterobacteriaceae: fecal carriage

rates and associated risk factors in the community of Northern Cyprus. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control

;10(8):98.

Ur Rahman S, Ali T, Ali I, et al. The growing genetic and functional diversity of extended spectrum beta-lactamases. Biomed Res Int 2018;26:9519718.

Day MJ, Hopkins KL, Wareham D, et al. Extended-spectrum β-lactamaseproducing Escherichia coli in humanderived and food chain-derived samples from England, Wales, and Scotland: an epidemiological surveillance and typing study. Lancet Infect Dis 2019;19(12):1325-35.

Ali J, Rafiq QA, Ratcliffe E. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and potential synthetic treatments. Future Sci OA 2018;4(4):FSO290.

Peterson E, Kaur P. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms in bacteria: relationships between resistance determinants of antibiotic producers, environmental bacteria, and clinical pathogens. Front

Microbiol 2018;9(2928):1-21.

Munita JM, Arias CA. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Microbiol Spectr 2015;4(2):1-24.

Sharma A, Gupta VK, Pathania R. Efflux pump inhibitors for bacterial pathogens: From bench to bedside. Indian J Med Res 2019;149(2):129-45.

Soto SM. Role of efflux pumps in the antibiotic resistance of bacteria embedded in a biofilm. Virulence

;4(3):223-9.

Alibert S, N’gompaza DJ, Hernandez J, et al. Multidrug efflux pumps in gramnegative bacteria and their role in

antibiotic resistance. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2017;13(3):301-9.

Sharon JP, Gavin KP. Mechanisms of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Annu Rev Biochem 2015;84(1):577-601.

von Wintersdorff CJ, Penders J, van Niekerk JM, et al. Dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in microbial

ecosystems through horizontal gene transfer. Front Microbiol 2016;19(7):173.

Rozwandowicz M, Brouwer MSM, Fischer J, et al. Plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae. J Antimicrob Chemother 2018;73(5):1121-37.

Gutiérrez C, Zenis J, Legarraga P, et al.Genetic analysis of the first mcr-1 positive Escherichia coli isolate collected from an outpatient in Chile. Braz J Infect Dis 2019;23(3):203-6.

Khan AU, Maryam L, Zarrilli R. Structure, genetics and worldwide spread of New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM): a threat to public health. BMC Microbiol 2017;17(1):101.

De Niederhäusern S, Bondi M, Messi P, et al. Vancomycin-resistance transferability from VanA enterococci to

Staphylococcus aureus. Curr Microbiol 2011;62(5):1363-7.

Cong Y, Yang S, Rao X. Vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: A review of case updating

and clinical features. J Adv Res 2020; 21:169-76.

Mazaheri NFR, Barton MD, Heuzenroeder M W . B a c t e r i o p h a g e - m e d i a t e d transduction of antibiotic resistance in enterococci. Lett Appl Microbiol 2011;52(6):559-64.

O’Neill J. Antimicrobial Resistance: Tackling a crisis for the health and wealth of nations [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2019 May 25]; Available from: https://amrreview.org/sites/default/files/AMR%20 Review%20Paper%20-%20Tackling%20 a%20crisis%20for%20the%20health%20 and%20wealth%20of%20 nations_1.pdf.

National antimicrobial resistance surveillance center, Thailand (NARST) [Internet]. Antimicrobial resistance

situation in Thailand; 2013 [cited 2019 May 25]; Available from: http://narst. dmsc.moph.go.th/news001.html.

Phumart P, Phodha T, Thamlikitkul V, et al. Health and economic impacts of antimicrobial resistant infections in Thailand: A preliminary study. JHSR 2012;6(3):352-60.

National antimicrobial resistance surveillance center, Thailand (NARST) [Internet]. Percentage of susceptible

organisms isolated from all specimen, 49 hospitals, Jan-Sep 2019 [cited 2020 February 16]; Available from: http://narst. dmsc.moph.go.th/antibiograms/2019/9/Jan-Sep2019-All.pdf.

National antimicrobial resistance surveillance center, Thailand (NARST) [Internet]. Antimicrobial resistance 2000-2019 (6M) [cited 2020 February 16];Available from: http://narst.dmsc.moph.go.th/data/AMR%202000-2019-06M.pdf.

Sumpradit N, Suttajit S, Poonpolsub S,et al. Landscape of antimicrobial resistance situation and action in Thailand. National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance. 2014; Oct 8; Nontaburi, Thailand. Aksorn graphic and

design publisher; 2015. p. 1-143.

Downloads

Published

2020-08-31

Issue

Section

Review Article (บทความวิชาการ)