The Impact of Out-of-Pocket Health Expenditure on Maternal Health: Empirical Evidence from Central and Latin American Countries

Authors

  • Achille Dargaud Fofack Business Administration Department, Cyprus International University, 99258 Lefkoşa, via Mersin 10, 99258 Turkey.
  • Steve Sarpong Business Administration Department, Cyprus International University, 99258 Lefkoşa, via Mersin 10, 99258 Turkey.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31584/jhsmr.201957

Keywords:

Central America, Latin America, maternal mortality, out-of-pocket expenditure, skilled birth attendance

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure on maternal health outcomes using a panel of twenty Central and Latin American countries between 2000 and 2015.
Material and Methods: Six different estimation techniques were used in the analysis in order to check the robustness of the findings. Those estimation techniques were: the ordinary least squares method, the Prais-Winsten correlated panels corrected standard errors regression, the fixed and the random effects models, the generalized least squares method and the bias-corrected least squares dummy variable method.
Results: After controlling for female education, gross domestic product and remittances, it was found that a surge in (OOP) health expenditure significantly deteriorates maternal health as it leads to a decrease in skilled birth attendance and an increase in maternal mortality. It was also found that in Central and Latin American countries, educated women tended to be healthier, and maternal health care was mainly financed with the money received from friends and family members living abroad.
Conclusion: It is therefore recommended that public health authorities design and implement protective health care financing programs, such as health insurance.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Escobar ML, Griffin CC, Shaw RP. The impact of health insurance in low- and middle-income countries. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press; 2010.

2. Mclntyre D, Thiede M, Dahlgren G, Whitehead M. What are the economic consequences for households of illness and paying for health care in low and middle income country contexts? Soc Sci Med 2006;62:859-62.

3. Mohanty S, Srivastava A. Out-of-pocket expenditure on institutional delivery in India. Health Policy Plan 2013;28:249-56.

4. Galarrago O, Sosa-Rubi S, Salinas-Rodriguez A. Health insurance for the poor: impact on catastrophic and out of pocket health expenditures in Mexico. Eur J Health Econ 2010;11:437-42.

5. Frenk J, Gonzalez-Pier E, Gomez-Dantes O. Comprehensive reform to improve health system performance in Mexico. Lancet 2006;368:1524-34.

6. Leive A, Xu K. Coping with out-of-pocket health payments:empirical evidence from 15 African countries. Bull WHO 2008;86:849-60.

7. Dammel W, Leemput L, Por I, Hardeman W, Meessen B. Out of pocket health expenditure and debt in poor households:evidence from Cambodia. Trop Med Int Health 2004;9:273-75.

8. Minh H, Phuong N, Saksena P, James C, Xu K. Financial burden of household out-of-pocket health expenditure in
Viet Nam: findings from the national living standard survey 2002-2010. Soc Sci Med 2013;96:258-60.

9. Correa-Burrows P. Out-of-pocket health care spending by the chronically ill in Chile. Proc Econ Fin 2012;1:88-97.

10. Massey D, Arongo J, Hugo G, Kouaouci A, Pellegrino A, Taylor J. An evaluation of international migration theory: the North American case, Popul Dev Rev 1994;20:699-751.

11. Bruno G. Estimation and inference in dynamic unbalanced panel data models with a small number of individual. Stata J 2005;5:473-500.

12. Anderson R, Hsiao C. Formulation and estimation of dynamic models using panel data. J Econ 1982;18:47-82.

13. Bovbjerg RR, Hadley J. Why health insurance is important. DC-SPG 2007;1-3.

14. Bernstein J, Chollet D, Peterson S. How does insurance coverage improve health outcomes?. Math Policy Res 2010;1-5.

15. OECD. Universal health coverage and health outcomes. Final report 2016 [monograph on the internet]. Paris: OECD
[cited 2016 Jul 22]. Available from: https://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/Universal-Health-Coverage-and-Health-
Outcomes-OECD-G7-Health-Ministerial-2016.pdf

16. Bonfrer I, Breebaart L, Van de Poel E. The effects of Ghana’s national health insurance scheme on maternal and infant health care utilization. Plos One 2016;11:e0165623.

17. Sommers BD, Gawande AA, Baicker K. Health insurance coverage and health -what the recent evidence tells us. New Eng J Med 2017;377:586-93.

Downloads

Published

2019-06-25

How to Cite

1.
Fofack AD, Sarpong S. The Impact of Out-of-Pocket Health Expenditure on Maternal Health: Empirical Evidence from Central and Latin American Countries. J Health Sci Med Res [Internet]. 2019 Jun. 25 [cited 2022 Oct. 1];37(3):237-45. Available from: https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jhsmr/article/view/157571

Issue

Section

Original Article