Main Article Content
Introduction: Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST) is a tool for measuring lower extremities strength, balance ability and fall risk. However, studies of the validity of FTSST in community-dwelling elders was limited.
Objective: To investigate the predictive validity, concurrent validity and discriminative validity of FTSST for the risk of fall assessment in community-dwelling older.
Materials and methods: The matched case-control study in 70 subjects, ≥60 years old, were divided into two groups: fall (n=35) and non-fall (n=35). All subjects were asked for baseline demographics and performed FTSST and timed up and go test (TUGT). The data obtained from this study were analyzed for predictive validity, concurrent validity, and compared to performed FTSST between fall and non-fall groups (discriminative validity).
Results: Most of the subjects were female. ROC analysis indicated that time required to complete FTSST were ≥10.02 seconds, which indicated risk of fall in community-dwelling elders (sensitivity 68.57%, specificity 80.00%, area under ROC curve (AUC) 0.82; 95%CI=1.32-2.58). In addition, FTSST had strong correlation with TUGT (r=0.873; p<0.001) and subjects who experienced fall (fall group) required significantly longer time to complete FTSST than those of non-fall subjects (p=0.005).
Conclusion: Finding of this study warrants validity of the FTSST and offer important quantitative criteria to monitor risk of fall in community-dwelling elders.
Bull Chiang Mai Assoc Med Sci 2016; 49(2): 226-244. Doi: 10.14456/jams.2016.18
Personal views expressed by the contributors in their articles are not necessarily those of the Journal of Associated Medical Sciences, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University.
2. Hill K, Schwarz J, Flicker L, Carroll S. Falls among healthy, community-dwelling, older women: a prospective study of frequency, circumstances, consequences and prediction accuracy. Aust N Z J Public Health 1999; 23(1): 41-8.
3. Boulgarides LK, McGinty SM, Willett JA, Barnes CW. Use of clinical and impairment-based tests to predict falls by community-dwelling older adults. Phys Ther 2003; 83(4): 328-39.
4. Buatois S, Perret-Guillaume C, Gueguen R, Miget P, Vancon G, Perrin P, et al. A simple clinical scale to stratify risk of recurrent falls in community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older. Phys Ther 2010; 90(4): 550-60.
5. Meyer G, Kopke S, Bender R, Muhlhauser I. Predicting the risk of falling--efficacy of a risk assessment tool compared to nurses' judgement: a cluster-randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN37794278]. BMC Geriatrics 2005; 10: 5-14.
6. Woollacott MH, Tang PF. Balance control during walking in the older adult: research and its implications. Phys Ther 1997; 77(6): 646-60.
7. Viccaro LJ, Perera S, Studenski SA. Is timed up and go better than gait speed in predicting health, function, and falls in older adults? J Am Geriatr Soc 2011; 59(5): 887-92.
8. Yamada M, Ichihashi N. Predicting the probability of falls in community-dwelling elderly individuals using the trail-walking test. Environ-Health Prev Med 2010; 15(6): 386-91.
9. Shumway-Cook A, Brauer S, Woollacott M. Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults using the Timed Up & Go Test. PhysTher 2000; 80(9): 896-903.
10. Podsiadlo D, Richardson S. The timed "Up & Go": a test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 1991; 39(2): 142-8.
11. Herman T, Giladi N, Hausdorff JM. Properties of the 'timed up and go' Test: more than meets the eye. Gerontology 2011; 57(3): 203-10.
12. Hatch J, Gill-Body KM, Portney LG. Determinants of balance confidence in community-dwelling elderly people. Phys Ther 2003; 83(12): 1072-9.
13. Isles RC, Choy NL, Steer M, Nitz JC. Normal values of balance tests in women aged 20-80. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; 52(8): 1367-72.
14. Poncumhak P, Insorn T, Prasittimet N, Manota P. The pilot study on the risk of fall prediction in Thai elderly using five times sit-to- stand test. Srinagarind Med J 2014; 29(3): 237-42.
15. Tiedemann A, Shimada H, Sherrington C, Murray S, Lord S. The comparative ability of eight functional mobility tests for predicting falls in community-dwelling older people. Age Aging 2008; 37(4): 430-5.
16. Mong Y, Teo TW, Ng SS. 5-repetition sit-to-stand test in subjects with chronic stroke: reliability and validity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010; 91(3): 407-13.
17. Lord SR, Murray SM, Chapman K, Munro B, Tiedemann A. Sit-to-stand performance depends on sensation, speed, balance, and psychological status in addition to strength in older people. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2002; 57(8): 539-43.
18. Bohannon RW. Measurement of Sit-to-Stand Among Older Adults. Top Geriatr Rehabil 2012; 28(1): 11-6.
19. Poncumhak P, Saengsuwan J, Kamruecha W, Amatachaya S. Reliability and validity of three functional tests in ambulatory patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2013; 51(3): 214-7.
20. Zhang F, Ferrucci L, Culham E, Metter EJ, Guralnik J, Deshpande N. Performance on five times sit-to-stand task as a predictor of subsequent falls and disability in older persons. J Aging Health 2013; 25(3): 478-92.
21. Vellas BJ, Wayne SJ, Romero L, Baumgartner RN, Rubenstein LZ, Garry PJ. One-leg balance is an important predictor of injurious falls in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997; 45(6): 735-8.
22. Thiamwong L, Thamarpirat J, Maneesriwongul W, Jitapunkul S. Thai falls risk assessment test (Thai-FRAT) developed for community-dwelling Thai elderly. J Med Assoc Thai 2008; 91(12): 1823-31.
23. Whitney SL, Wrisley DM, Marchetti GF, Gee MA, Redfern MS, Furman JM. Clinical measurement of sit-to-stand performance in people with balance disorders: validity of data for the Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand Test. Phys Ther 2005; 85(10): 1034-45.
24. Nandy S, Parsons S, Cryer C, Underwood M, Rashbrook E, Carter Y, et al. Development and preliminary examination of the predictive validity of the Falls Risk Assessment Tool (FRAT) for use in primary care. J Public Health (Oxf) 2004; 26(2): 138-43.
25. Galli M, Cimolin V, Crivellini M, Campanini I. Quantitative analysis of sit to stand movement: experimental set-up definition and application to healthy and hemiplegic adults. Gait Posture 2008; 28(1): 80-5.
26. Goldberg A, Chavis M, Watkins J, Wilson T. The five-times-sit-to-stand test: validity, reliability and detectable change in older females. Aging Clin Exp Res 2012; 24(4): 339-44.
27. Poncumhak P, Saengsuwan J, Amatachaya S. Ability of walking without a walking device in patients with spinal cord injury as determined using data from functional tests. J Spinal Cord Med 2014; 37(4): 389-96.
28. Saensook W, Poncumhak P, Saengsuwan J, Mato L, Kamruecha W, Amatachaya S. Discriminative ability of the three functional tests in independent ambulatory patients with spinal cord injury who walked with and without ambulatory assistive devices. J Spinal Cord Med 2014; 37(2): 212-7.
29. Ng SS, Kwong PW, Chau MS, Luk IC, Wan SS, Fong SS. Effect of arm position and foot placement on the five times sit-to-stand test completion times of female adults older than 50 years of age. J Phys Ther Sci 2015; 27(6): 1755-9.
30. van Hedel HJ, Dietz V, Curt A. Assessment of walking speed and distance in subjects with an incomplete spinal cord injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2007; 21(4): 295-301.
31. Chiu AY, Au-Yeung SS, Lo SK. A comparison of four functional tests in discriminating fallers from non-fallers in older people. Disabil Rehabil 2003; 25(1): 45-50.
32. Schoene D, Wu SM, Mikolaizak AS, Menant JC, Smith ST, Delbaere K, et al. Discriminative ability and predictive validity of the timed up and go test in identifying older people who fall: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc 2013; 61(2): 202-8.