Main Article Content
Background: Wood carving is a very well-known occupation in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Traditional posture during wood carving with conventional tools has been demonstrated by sitting on the floor. However, work-musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) during carving had not been assessed and whether workstation modification could be involved in posture, pain and satisfaction.
Objectives: To evaluate posture and pain during wood carving at before and after workstation and to develop an innovative workstation and tools for a woodcarver.
Materials and methods: This study was performed preliminarily in a male wood carver aged 28 years, with ten years of carving experience. Before and after 4-weeks when the workstation and tools were modified, the ergonomic risk was evaluated by using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), and pain area and intensity as well as satisfaction were interviewed. Then, the innovative workstation was designed and developed after face to face discussions.
Results: The results of posture in a conventional workstation showed a slumping position on a low stool and use of various unsafe steel carving tools, and the total RULA score was7, whereas an intense pain located at the neck and lower back regions. When the workstation was modified with marble and wooden chairs, and tools with hammer with rubber wrapped heads, the total RULA score decreased to 6. Additionally, pain intensity at the neck and lower back decreased and the satisfaction improved. Finally, when an innovative workstation was designed and developed, the result showed looked convenient, comfortable and usable for wood carving.
Conclusion. Modification of the workstation and tools for wood carver can reduce pain. Furthermore, an innovative workstation should have developed for wood carver for protecting the WMSD.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Personal views expressed by the contributors in their articles are not necessarily those of the Journal of Associated Medical Sciences, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University.
 Girish N, Ramachandra K, Arun GM, Asha K. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among cashew factory workers. Arch Environ Occup Health 2012; 67(1): 37-42.
 Hanklang S, Kaewboonchoo O, Silpasuwan P, Mungarndee SS. Musculoskeletal disorders among Thai women in construction-related work. Asia Pac J Public Health 2014; 26(2): 196-202.
 Thetkathuek A, Meepradit P, Jaidee W. Factors affecting the musculoskeletal disorders of workers in the frozen food manufacturing factory in Thailand. Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2016; 22(1): 49-56.
 Khalil TM, Moty EM, Rosomoff RS, Rosomoff HL. Ergonomics in back pain: a guide to prevention and rehabilitation. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold; 1993.
 Khattak SA . Role of ergonomics in re-designing job design in call centers. Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2019: 1-10.
 White J. Health and safety management: an alternative approach to reducing accidents, injury and illness at work. 1st edition. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2019.
 Choobineh A, Hosseini M, Lahmi M, Jazani RK, Shahnavaz H. Musculoskeletal problems in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry: Guidelines for workstation design. Appl Ergon 2007; 38(5): 617-24.
 Boyles JL, Yearout RD, Rys MJ. Ergonomic scissors for hairdressing. Int J Ind Ergon 2003; 32(3): 199-207.
 Motamedzade M, Choobineh A, Mououdi MA, Arghami S. Ergonomic design of carpet weaving hand tools. Int J Ind Ergon 2007; 37(7): 581-7.
 Hedge A. Quantifying office productivity: an ergonomic framework. Proc Hum Factors Ergon Soc Annu Meet. 1998; https;//doi.org/10.1177/154193129804201306.
 Dockrell S, O'Grady E, Bennett K, Mullarkey C, Mc Connell R, Ruddy R, et al. An investigation of the reliability of Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) as a method of assessment of children's computing posture. Appl Ergon 2012; 43(3): 632-6.
 Cremasco MM, Giustetto A, Caffaro F, Colantoni A, Cavallo E, Grigolato S. Risk assessment for musculoskeletal disorders in Forestry: A comparison between RULA and REBA in the manual feeding of a wood-chipper. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019; 16(5): 793. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16050793.
 Mokkink LB, Terwee CB, Patrick DL, Alonso J, Stratford PW, Knol DL, et al. The COSMIN checklist for assessing the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties of health status measurement instruments: an international Delphi study. Qual Life Res 2010; 19(4): 539–49.
 Fillingim RB, Loeser JD, Baron R, Edwards RR. Assessment of chronic pain: domains, methods, and mechanisms. J Pain 2016; 17(9 Suppl): T10-T20.
 Choobineh A, Tosian R, Alhamdi Z, Davarzanie M. Ergonomic intervention in carpet mending operation. Appl Ergon 2004; 35(5): 493-6.
 Radjahi A. Carpets, hand-woven. In: Encyclopedia of Occupational health and Safety. Third edition. ILO: Geneva. 1983. pp. 416-8.
 Lavrakas PJ. Face-to Face Interviewing. In: Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods. 2008. doi: https;//dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412963947.n174.
 Waongenngarm P, Rajaratnam BS, Janwantanakul P. Internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscle fatigue induced by slumped sitting posture after 1 hour of sitting in office workers. Saf Health Work 2016; 7(1): 46-54. doi: 10.1016/j.shaw.2015.08.001
 Kwon Y, Kim JW, Heo JH, Jeon HM, Choi EB, Eom GM. The effect of sitting posture on the loads at cervico-thoracic and lumbosacral joints. Technol Health Care 2018; 26(S1): 409-18.
 Rahman CM. Study and analysis of work postures of workers working in a ceramic industry through rapid upper limb assessment (RULA). Inter J Eng Appl Sci 2014; 5(3). 14-20.
 Basahel AM. Investigation of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in warehouse workers in Saudi Arabia. Procedia Manufact 2015; 3: 4643-9.
 McAtamney L, Corlett, EN. RULA: a survey method for the investigation of work-related upper limb disorders. Appl Ergon 1993; 24(2): 91-9. doi: 10.1016/0003-6870(93)90080-s.
 Hobson DA, Tooms RE. Seated lumbar/pelvic alignment. A comparison between spinal cord-injured and noninjured groups. Spine 1992;17(3): 293-8.
 Areeudomwong P, Puntumetakul R, Kaber DB, Wanpen S, Leelayuwat N, Chatchawan U. Effects of handicraft sitting postures on lower trunk muscle fatigue. Ergonomics 2012; 55(6), 693-703. doi: 10.1080/00140139.2012.658086.
 Aghazadeh A, Mital A. Injuries due to hand tools: results of a questionnaire. Appl Ergon 1987; 18(4): 273-8. doi: 10.1016/0003-6870(87)90134-7.
 Armstrong T. Ergonomics and cumulative trauma disorders. Hand Clin 1986; 2(3): 553-65.
 Hokari K, Pramudita JA, Ito M, Noda S, Tanabe Y. The relationships of gripping comfort to contact pressure and hand posture during gripping. In J Ind Ergon 2019; 70: 84-91.
 Warren N, Sanders MJ. Biomechanical risk factors. In M.J. Sanders (Ed). Ergonomics and the management of musculoskeletal disorders. 2nd Edition. St. Louise: Butterworth Heinemann. 2004; pp. 191-229.
 Kim JY, Shin JS, Lim MS, Choi HG, Kim SK, Kang HT, et al. Relationship between simultaneous exposure to ergonomic risk factors and work-related low back pain: a cross-sectional study based on the fourth Korean working conditions survey. Ann Occup Environ Med 2018; 30:58. doi: 10.1186/s40557-018-0269-1.
 Marshall L, Villeneuve J, Grenier S. Effectiveness of a multifactorial ergonomic intervention and exercise conditioning kinesiology program for subsequent work-related musculoskeletal disorder prevention. Work 2018; 61(1): 81-9. doi: 10.3233/WOR-182782.