A study of self-esteem and academic achievement of undergraduate students with physical or locomotion disability in Chiang Mai University

Main Article Content

Sopida Apichai
Pornpen Sirisatayawong
Supat Chupradit
Supawadee Khamchai


Background: Self-esteem reflects an individual’s judgment concerning worth and accepting or rejecting of self that shows in one's attitude. Low self-esteem is a weakening condition that shields an individual from understanding their full potential and limits their engaging in an occupation.Academic achievement is viewed as a key criterion to judge one's total capabilities and potentialities. There are several studies about the self-esteem and academic achievement of undergraduate students; however, limited studies exist for undergraduate students with physical or locomotion disability.

Objectives: To determine the level of self-esteem in undergraduate students in Chiang Mai University with a physical or locomotion disability and explore the associations between self-esteem level and academic achievement.

Materials and methods: Data collection was performed during the academic year 2017, in a sample of 27 undergraduate students in Chiang Mai University with physical or locomotion disability using Rogers Rubin’s Self-Esteem Scale, in order to identify the self-esteem level of the participants. Fisher’s exact tests were used to explore the associations between the self-esteem level and the background characteristics of the participants.

Results: Unexpectedly, the undergraduate students with physical or locomotion disability had average or high self-esteem level, although there was no statistically significant association between academic achievement and self-esteem. Gender variable was significantly associated to the participants’ self-esteem.

Conclusion: To promote self-esteem among undergraduate students with a physical or locomotion disability, occupational therapists should encourage them to engage in positive occupations that the person has the capability to accomplish and chooses to accomplish to regulate their rhythm of personal and community life.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Apichai, S., Sirisatayawong, P., Chupradit, S., & Khamchai, S. (2019). A study of self-esteem and academic achievement of undergraduate students with physical or locomotion disability in Chiang Mai University. Journal of Associated Medical Sciences, 52(2), 113-119. Retrieved from https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/bulletinAMS/article/view/160419
Occupational Therapy


[1] Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities. Report on Disability Situation in Thailand October 31, 2018 [Internet]. 2018. [cited 2018 Nov 1]. Available from: https://dep.go.th/?q=th/news (in Thai).

[2] Arnett JJ. Emerging adulthood. A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. Am Psychol 2000; 55: 469-80. doi: 10.1037//0003-066X.55.5.469.

[3] Shi J, Wang L, Yao Y, Su N, Zhao X, Chen F. Family Impacts on Self-Esteem in Chinese College Freshmen. Front Psychiatry 2017; 8: 279. doi: [10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00279].

[4] Chen F, Fan F. Relationships among college adjustment, resilience and mental health in freshmen. China J Health Psychol 2014; 22(12): 1894-6. doi:10.13342/j.cnki.cjhp.2014.12.052.

[5] Baker RW, Siryk B. Manual for Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services; 1989.

[6] Compas BE, Wagner BM, Slavin LA, Vannatta K. A prospective study of life events, social support and psychological symptomatology during the transition from high school to college. Am J Community Psychol 1986; 14(3): 241-57.

[7] Friedlander LJ, Reid GJ, Shupak N, Cribbie R. Social Support, Self-Esteem, and Stress as Predictors of Adjustment to University Among First-Year Undergraduates. Journal of College Student Development 2007; 48(3): 259-74. doi: 10.1353/csd.2007.0024.

[8] Rosenberg M. Society and the Adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 1965.

[9] Gallahue O. Understanding Motor Development. Boston McGraw Hill; 1998.

[10] Naz S. A study of self-esteem and academic achievement of the physically challenged secondary school students of Kashmir: Quantitative analysis. Int J Acad Res Dev 2017; 2(4): 226-35.

[11] Zajacova Α, Lynch SM, Espenshade TJ. Self-efficacy, stress, and academic success in college. Res High Educ 2005; 46: 677-706.

[12] Pullmann H, Allik J. Relations of academic and general self-esteem to school achievement. Pers Individ Dif 2008; 45: 559-564. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.06.017.

[13] Osborne JW. Academics, self-esteem, and race: A look at the underlying assumptions of the disidentification hypothesis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 1995; 21: 449–55. doi: 10.1177/0146167295215003

[14] Van Laar, C. The paradox of low academic achievement but high self-esteem in African American students: An attributional account. Educational Psychology Review 2000; 12: 33-61.

[15] Valentine JC, Dubois DL, Cooper H. The relation between self-beliefs and academic achievement: A meta-analytic review. Educational Psychologist 2004; 39, 111-33. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep3902_3.

[16] Chung JM, Robins RW, Trzesniewski KH, Noftle EE, Roberts BW, Widaman KF. Continuity and change in self-esteem during emerging adulthood. J Pers Soc Psychol 2014; 106(3): 469-83. doi: 10.1037/a0035135.

[17] Ministry of Education. Education for Individuals with Disabilities Act B.E. 2551 (2008). [in Thai]. Bangkok: Agricultural Cooperative of Thailand Limited; 2008.

[18] Public Relations Office, Chiang Mai University. 2010. Accepting students with disabilities in education opens opportunities equality for education. [Online]. Available https://www. prcmu.cmu.ac.th/scoop_detail.php/sco_sub_id=96 (4 July 2017).

[19] World Federation of Occupational Therapists. Definitions of occupational therapy from member organizations. 2013.

[20] Daremo A, Kjellberg A, Haglund L. Occupational Performance and Affective Symptoms for Patients with Depression Disorder. Advances in Psychiatry 2015; 2015: 1- 6. doi: 10.1155/2015/438149

[21] Komonmarn C. The Use of Rubin’s Self Esteem Scale in Social Work Practice: A Case Study of Children at Kredtrakarn Protection and Occupational Development Center [Thesis]. Faculty of Social Administration: Thammasat University; 2008 [in Thai].

[22] Pongpruk K. Interrelationship among assertive behavior anxiety and self-esteem [Thesis]. Department of Psychology: Chulalongkorn University; 1980 [in Thai].

[23] Jambor E, Elliott M. Self-esteem and coping strategies among deaf students. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ 2005; 10(1): 63-81. doi: 10.1093/deafed/eni004.

[24] Johnson V RF, Yarhouse MA. Shame in sexual minorities: Stigma, internal cognitions, and counseling considerations. Counseling and Values 2003; 58(1): 85-103. doi:10.1002/j.2161-007X.2013.00027.x.

[25] Salehi M, Tavakol KH, Shabani M, Ziaei T. The Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Sexual Self-Concept in People With Physical-Motor Disabilities. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2015. 17(1): 1-7. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.25359.

[26] Allport GW. The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley; 1954.

[27] Blanz M, Mummendey A, Mielke R, Klink A. Responding to negative social identity: a taxonomy of identity management strategies. European Journal of Social Psychology 1998; 28: 697-729. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(199809/10)28:5<697::AIDEJSP889>3.0.CO;2-#.

[28] Ummet D. Self esteem among college students: a study of satisfaction of basic psychological needs and some variables. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 174 2015; 1623-29. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.813.

[29] Gage M, Polatajko H. Enhancing Occupational Performance Through an Understanding of Perceived Self-Efficacy. Am J Occup Ther 1994; 48: 452-61. doi:10.5014/ajot.48.5.452.

[30] Kielhofner G. Conceptual foundations of occupational therapy. 3th ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis, 2004.

[31] Tamini BK, Vahbeygi R. The Impact of Gender, Age and Academic Branch on Self-Esteem of Students. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific. J Basic Appl Sci Res 2011; 1(9): 1065-69.

[32] McMullin JA, Cairney J. Self-esteem and the intersection of age, class, and gender. Journal of Aging Studies 2004; 18(1): 75-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jaging.2003.09.006.

[33] American Occupational Therapy Association. Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain and process (3re ed). Am J Occup Ther 2002; 56: 609-39.

[34] Law M, Polatajko H, Baptiste W, Townsend E. Core concepts of occupational therapy. In: Townsend E, editor. Enabling occupation: An occupational therapy perspective. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists; 1997: 29-56.

[35] Christiansen CH. The 1999 Eleanor Clarke Slagle Lecture. Defining lives: occupation as identity: an essay on competence, coherence, and the creation of meaning. Am J Occup Ther 1999; 53(6): 547-58.

[36] Hammell KW. Dimensions of meaning in the occupations of daily life. Can J Occup Ther 2004; 71(5): 296-305. doi: 10.1177/000841740407100509.