• Akkaporn Saelee
  • Sarit SUWANMANA -
  • Parunchaya JAMKRAJANG


Locomotion, Lower limb kinematics, Running analysis, Spatio-temporal analysis


     This study aimed to investigate changes in knee and pelvic angles during 30-min treadmill running. Eight
recreational runners ran on a treadmill at a speed equivalent to 70% of VO2peak for 30 minutes while simultaneous
3-dimensional motion data of the lower extremities were collected using a lower limb and trunk marker model and
8 optoelectronic cameras. Knee and pelvic angles at initial contact (IC) and toe-off (TO) during the 1st and 30th
min of 5 running gait cycles were analyzed and a paired samples t-test was used to evaluate differences between
two-time points. The results showed no significant differences in 3-dimensional motion knee or pelvic (all P >0.05)
angles between the first and last minute of running. There were also no differences in left and right leg step and
stride length at IC and TO (all P >0.05). It is concluded that knee and pelvic angles do not change over the course
of a 30-min treadmill run. For the pratical implication, the runners could maintain the running pattern consistency
in lower limb kinematics when training 30-minutes run on treadmill.
(Journal of Sports Science and Technology 2022; 22 (1): 37-48)
(Received: 23 January 2022, Revised: 9 March 2022, Accepted: 24 March 2022)
KEYWORDS: Locomotion/ Lower limb kinematics/ Running analysis/ Spatio-temporal analysis
Corresponding author:Parunchaya JAMKRAJANG
College of Sports Science and Technology, Mahidol University, THAILAND


Download data is not yet available.


van Middelkoop M, Kolkman J, van Ochten J, et al. Prevalence and incidence of lower extremity injuries in male marathon runners. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008;18(2):140-4.

Bridgman CF. Biomechanical evaluation of distance running during training and competition. University of Salford (United Kingdom). 2015.

Dugan SA, Bhat KP. Biomechanics and analysis of running gait. Rehabil Clin N Am. 2005;16(3):603-621.

Kapri E, Mehta M, Singh K. Biomechanics of running: An overview on gait cycle. Int. J. Phys. Educ. Fit. Sports. 2021;10(3):1-9.

van Oeveren BT, de Ruiter CJ, Beek PJ, van Dieën JH. The biomechanics of running and running styles: a synthesis. Sports Biomech. 2021;1-39.

Novacheck TF. The biomechanics of running. Gait Posture. 1998;7(1):77-95.

Saunders, SW, Schache A, Rath D, Hodges PW. Changes in three dimensional lumbo-pelvic kinematics and trunk muscle activity with speed and mode of locomotion. Clin Biomech. 2005;20(8):784-93.

Derrick TR, Dereu DA, McLean SP. Impacts and kinematic adjustments during an exhaustive run. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(6):998-1002.

Devita P, Fellin RE, Seay JF, Ip E, et al. The relationships between age and running biomechanics. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48(1):98-106.

Silvernail JF, Boyer K, Rohr E, Brüggemann GP, Hamill J. Running Mechanics and Variability with Aging. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(10):2175-80.

Fredericson M, Misra AK. Epidemiology and aetiology of marathon running injuries. Sports Med. 2007;37(4):437-439.

Hannigan JJ, Osternig LR, Chou LS. Sex-Specific Relationships between hip strength and hip, pelvis, and trunk kinematics in healthy runners. J. Appl. Biomech. 2018;34(1):76-81.

Schache AG, Blanch PD, Murphy AT. Relation of anterior pelvic tilt during running to clinical and kinematic measures of hip extension. Br. J. Sports Med. 2000;34(4):279-83.

Koopmann T, Sanno M, Mählich D, Kurz M, et al. In; Lower spine loading and pelvic kinematics throughout a near-maximal 10 km run, Proceedings of the 37th International Society of Biomechanics in Sport Conference archive, Oxford, Ohio, USA, July 21-25, 2019; Koopmann T, Sanno M, Mählich D, Kurz M, et al. Institute of Biomechanics and Orthopaedics, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany. 2019; pp 236-9.

Tonoli C, Cumps E, Aerts I, Verhagen E, Meeusen R. Running related injuries in long-distance running: Incidence, risk factors and prevention. Sport En Geneeskd. 2010;45(3):12.

Videbæk S, Bueno AM, Nielsen RO, Rasmussen S. Incidence of running-related injuries per 1000 h of running in different types of runners: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2015;45:1017–26.

Vanrenterghem J, Gormley D, Robinson M, Lees A. Solutions for representing the whole-body centre of mass in side cutting manoeuvres based on data that is typically available for lower limb kinematics. Gait Posture. 2010;31(4):517-21.

Maas E, De Bie J, Vanfleteren R, Hoogkamer W, Vanwanseele B. Novice runners show greater changes in kinematics with fatigue compared with competitive runners. Sports Biomech. 2018;17(3):350-60. 19. Rivera CE. Core and lumbopelvic stabilization in runners. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2016;27(1):319-337.

Clansey AC, Hanlon M, Wallace ES, Lake MJ. Effects of fatigue on running mechanics associated with tibial stress fracture risk. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(10):1917-23.

Willwacher S, Sanno M, Brüggemann GP. Fatigue matters: An intense 10 km run alters frontal and transverse plane joint kinematics in competitive and recreational adult runners. Gait Posture. 2020;76: 277-83. 22. Tian F, Li N, Zheng Z, Huang Q, Zhu T, Li Q, Wang S. The effects of marathon running on three-dimensional knee kinematics during walking and running in recreational runners. Gait Posture. 2020;75:72-7. 23. Dierks TA, Davis IS, Hamill J. The effects of running in an exerted state on lower extremity kinematics and joint timing. J. Biomech. 2010;43(15):2993-98. 24. Brouwer GM, Tol AV, Bergink AP, Belo JN, et al. Association between valgus and varus alignment and the development and progression of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee. A&R. 2007;56(4):1204-11.