• Poramet Hemarachatanon Walailak University
  • Komsak SINSURIN
Keywords: Ground reaction force/ free moment/ propulsive force/ breaking force/ club head speed/ golf/ downswing phase/ balance


Introduction: During the downswing phase, there are various styles of weight bearing on feet for creating clubhead speed in professional golfers. The style of weight bearing on feet influences the ground reaction force (GRF) and torque. However, in the contribution of the ground reaction force and the torque on clubhead speed, the understanding is not clear in some of professional golfers and sport scientists. Therefore, this review helps to clarify a basic understanding of the role of GRF and the torque which golfers usually use to control the body in the frontal and sagittal planes and to contribute clubhead speed effectively. Discussion: In a biomechanical study, the path of COP can be tracked in order to understand how body movement response relative to the GRF.During the downswing phase, ground reaction forces have roles as a propulsive force or a braking force which depends on each phase during downswing alternation. Moreover, the GRF and torque influence lower limb joint moment during the downswing and affect balance and stability control. In case of good balance and stability of the lower limbs, the kinetic chain transfers to the trunk, upper limb, and clubhead would be expected, respectively. Conclusion: During the downswing phase, the GRF and the torque influence trunk movement control. Lower limb and trunk muscles would respond according to the GRFs. Then, in good posture of the trunk and lower limbs, the clubhead speed could be enhanced. This represents an indirect role of the GRF and the torque to clubhead speed. Therefore, to enhance performance, golfers should practice and focus on trunk and lower movement controls rather than having high GRF.
(Journal of Sports Science and Technology 2019; 19(1): 25-36)
(Received: 10 August 2018, Revised: 10 May 2019, Accepted: 17 May 2019)
Keywords: Golf / Ground reaction force / Club head speed / Downswing phase
*Corresponding author: Poramet Hemarachatanon
School of Liberal Arts, Walailak University,
Nakhon Si Thammarat, THAILAND 80161
E-mail: hporamet@hotmail.com


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