Author Instruction


Manuscript style and formatting


  • Abbreviations: In general, terms should not be abbreviated unless they are used repeatedly and the abbreviation is helpful to the reader. Initially, use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation only.
  • Units of measurement: Measurements should be given in SI or SI-derived units. Visit the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) website at for more information about SI units.
  • Use generic drug names except when mentioning a specific proprietary preparation.
  • Submit manuscript in Word, 1.5 line spaced, and in Times New Roman 12 point font.
  • Number the pages consecutively starting with the title page.
  • Include headings and subheadings to divide the manuscript into appropriate sections.
  • Place tables, figures, and appendices on separate pages at the end of the manuscript.
  • Do not add text as headers, footers, or footnotes.
  • Except for Editorials and Letters or other exceptions agreed with the Editor-in-Chief, all submissions should be written in the passive voice, not in the first person.
  • Numbers: numbers under 10 are spelled out, except for measurements with a unit (8mmol/l); age (6 weeks old), or lists with other numbers (11 dogs, 9 cats, 4 gerbils).

Covering Letter

In the covering letter include the:

  • title of the manuscript;
  • corresponding author contact details (name, address, telephone and fax numbers, e-mail address)
  • a statement that none of the material has been published previously is under consideration, or has been accepted for publication elsewhere;
  • a statement of competing interests – authors must declare all financial or other relationships that might lead to a conflict of interest;
  • a statement that all persons listed as authors have read and given approval for the submission of the manuscript;
  • when studies involve experimental investigations on humans, a statement that the subjects provided informed consent and the name of the institutional ethics committee that approved the study; and
  • an ethics statement, providing the name of the institutional ethics committee that approved the study and the approval reference number (when studies involve experimental investigations on humans, an additional statement that the subjects provided documented informed consent is also needed); and
  • a statement that the submission complies with the manuscript checklist (at the end of this document).


Parts of the Manuscript

The manuscript should be submitted in separate files: title page; main text file; figures.

(I) Title Page

The title page should contain:

  1. A short informative containing the major keywords. The title should not contain abbreviations;
  2. A short running title of less than 40 characters;
  3. The full names of the authors, (including middle initial, and with surname in capitals), qualifications (earned post-nominals), title and address of position held when the manuscript was produced for all authors;

(II) Main Text File

As papers are double-blind peer-reviewed, the main text file should not include any information that might identify the authors.

The main text file should be presented in the following order:

  1. Title, abstract, and keywords;
  2. Main text;
  3. References;
  4. Tables (each table complete with title and footnotes);
  5. Figure legends;
  6. Appendices (if relevant).



Editorial Review and Acceptance

The acceptance criteria for all papers are the quality and originality of the research and its significance to our readership. Except where otherwise stated, manuscripts are double-blind peer-reviewed by two anonymous reviewers and the editor. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the editorial board, which reserves the right to refuse any material for publication.



The corresponding author will receive an email with details on how to provide proof corrections. It is therefore essential that a working email address be provided for the corresponding author.



Access and Sharing

When the article is published online: 

  • The author receives an email alert (if requested).
  • The link to the published article can be shared through social media.
  • The author will have free access to the paper (after accepting the Terms & Conditions of use, they can view the article).