Main Article Content

Khongphon Vaewvoravit
Assistant Professor Nattasuda Taephant, Ph.D.


Objective: To examine the relationships among gender roles, attachment, and self-compassion in undergraduates.

Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study, which was carried out from March to May 2020. Participants were 199 undergraduates in Bangkok Metropolitan Region. Instruments were (1) Gender Roles Inventory (GRI) (2) Experiences in Close Relationships—Relationship Structures Questionnaire (ECR-RS) (3) Self-Compassion Scale – Short Form (SCS-SF). Pearson’s product moment correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the data.

Results: Masculinity and femininity were a very weak positive correlated with self-compassion (r = .22) (r = .185) while anxiety attachment and avoidance attachment were significantly and slightly negatively correlated with self-compassion (r = -.318) (r = -.346). Masculinity, femininity, anxiety attachment and avoidance attachment significantly predicted self-compassion and accounted for 21.7 percent of the total variance (adjusted R2 = .217, p < .001). Avoidance attachment and anxiety attachment significantly predicted self-compassion (p < .001).

Conclusion: Anxiety attachment and avoidance attachment significantly predicted self-compassion while gender roles were a very weak positive correlated with self-compassion.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Original article (นิพนธ์ต้นฉบับ)


Department of Mental Health. Telephone tumultuous, mental health hotline more than 1 hundred thousand people 40% are sex calls [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2020 Jul 20]. Available from:

Department of Mental Health. Department of Mental Health reveals survey of Thai teenagers attaching happiness to lovers [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2020 Jul 23]. Available from:

Santrock JW. Adolescence. 14th ed. New York: McGraw-Hil; 2013.

Neff KD. Self-compassion: an alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self Identity [Internet]. 2003 [cited 2020 Jul 15];2:85-101. Available from:

Neff KD, Kirkpatrick KL, Rude SS. Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning. J Res Pers [Internet]. 2007 [cited 2020 Jul 10];41:139-54. Available from:

Leary MR, Tate EB, Adams CE, Allen AB, Hancock J. Self-compassion and reactions to unpleasant self-relevant events: the implications of treating oneself kindly. J Pers Soc Psychol 2007;92:887-904. PMID: 17484611.

Neff KD. The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self Identity [Internet]. 2003 [cited 2020 Jul 3];2:223-50. Available from:

Neff KD, Germer CK. A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self-compassion program. J Clin Psychol 2013;69:28-44. PMID: 23070875.

Raes F. Rumination and worry as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depression and anxiety. Pers Individ Dif [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2020 Jul 5];48:757-61. Available from:

MacBeth A, Gumley A. Exploring compassion: a meta-analysis of the association between self-compassion and psychopathology. Clin Psychol Rev 2012;32:545-52. PMID: 22796446.

Homan KJ. Self-compassion and psychological well-being in older adults. J Adult Dev [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2020 Jul 10];23:111-9. Available from:

Sun I, Chan DW, Chan L. Self-compassion and psychological well-being among adolescents in Hong Kong: exploring gender differences. Pers Individ Dif [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2020 Jul 11];101:288-92. Available from:

Zessin U, Dickhäuser O, Garbade S. The relationship between self-compassion and well-being: a meta-analysis. Appl Psychol Health Well Being 2015;7:340-64. PMID: 26311196.

American Psychological Association. Resolution on gender and sexual orientation diversity in children and adolescents in schools [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2020 Jul 13]. Available from:

Yarnell LM, Neff KD, Davidson OA, Mullarkey M. Gender differences in self-compassion: examining the role of gender role orientation. Mindfulness (N Y) 2018 Nov 27. [Epub ahead of print]

Bem SL. Gender schema theory: a cognitive account of sex typing. Psychol Rev [Internet]. 1981 [cited 2020 Jul 15];88:354-64. Available from:

Bowlby J. A secure base: parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books; 1988.

Fraley RC, Shaver PR. Adult romantic attachment: Theoretical developments, emerging controversies, and unanswered questions. Rev Gen Psychol [Internet]. 2000 [cited 2020 Jul 15];4:132-54. Available from:

Mackintosh K, Power K, Schwannauer M, Chan SWY. The relationships between self-compassion, attachment and interpersonal problems in clinical patients with mixed anxiety and depression and emotional distress. Mindfulness (N Y) 2017;9:961-71. PMID: 29875883.

Moreira H, Carona C, Silva N, Nunes J, Canavarro MC. Exploring the link between maternal attachment-related anxiety and avoidance and mindful parenting: the mediating role of self-compassion. Psychol Psychother 2016;89:369-84. PMID: 26493983.

Raque-Bogdan TL, Piontkowski S, Hui K, Ziemer KS, Garriott PO. Self-compassion as a mediator between attachment anxiety and body appreciation: an exploratory model. Body Image [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2020 Jul 15];19:28-36. Available from:

Wei M, Liao KY, Ku TY, Shaffer PA. Attachment, self-compassion, empathy, and subjective well-being among college students and community adults. J Pers 2011;79:191-221. PMID: 21223269.

Hoffman RM. The measurement of masculinity and femininity: historical perspective and implications for counseling. J Couns Dev [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2020 Jul 15];79:472-85. Available from:

Bem SL. The measurement of psychological androgyny. J Consult Clin Psychol [Internet]. 1974 [cited 2020 Jul 17];42:155-62. Available from: 7/h0036215

Leangsuksant T. The multilevel structural equation model of therapeutic alliance [Dissertation]. Bangkok: Faculty of Psychology, Chulalongkorn University; 2018. (in Thai)

Fraley RC, Waller NG, Brennan KA. An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. J Pers Soc Psychol 2000;78:350-65. PMID: 10707340.

Pornkosonsirilert T, Audboon S, Laemsak O. The relationship among self-compassion, stress, self-efficacy, subjective well-being and school burnout in high school students: senior project psychology. Bangkok: Faculty of Psychology, Chulalongkorn University; 2017. (in Thai)

Raes F, Pommier E, Neff KD, Gucht DV. Construction and factorial validation of a short form of the Self-Compassion Scale. Clin Psychol Psychother 2011;18:250-5. PMID: 21584907.

Patzak A, Kollmayer M, Schober B. Buffering impostor feelings with kindness: the mediating role of self-compassion between gender-role orientation and the impostor phenomenon. Front Psychol 2017;8:1289. PMID: 28798714.

Bowlby J. Attachment and loss. Vol. 2. Separation: anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books; 1973.

Brennan KA, Clark CL, Shaver PR. Self-report measurement of adult attachment: an integrative overview. In: Simpson JA, Rholes WS, editors. Attachment theory and close relationships. New York: Guilford Press; 1998. p.46-76.

Jiang Y, You J, Zheng X, Lin M. The qualities of attachment with significant others and self-compassion protect adolescents from non suicidal self-injury. Sch Psychol Q 2017;32:143-55. PMID: 28414504.

Neff KD, McGehee P. Self-compassion and psychological resilience among adolescents and young adults. Self Identity [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2020 Jul 20];9:225-40. Available from: