Main Article Content
Objective: To examine the relationships among gender roles, attachment, and self-compassion in undergraduates.
Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study, which was carried out from March to May 2020. Participants were 199 undergraduates in Bangkok Metropolitan Region. Instruments were (1) Gender Roles Inventory (GRI) (2) Experiences in Close Relationships—Relationship Structures Questionnaire (ECR-RS) (3) Self-Compassion Scale – Short Form (SCS-SF). Pearson’s product moment correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the data.
Results: Masculinity and femininity were a very weak positive correlated with self-compassion (r = .22) (r = .185) while anxiety attachment and avoidance attachment were significantly and slightly negatively correlated with self-compassion (r = -.318) (r = -.346). Masculinity, femininity, anxiety attachment and avoidance attachment significantly predicted self-compassion and accounted for 21.7 percent of the total variance (adjusted R2 = .217, p < .001). Avoidance attachment and anxiety attachment significantly predicted self-compassion (p < .001).
Conclusion: Anxiety attachment and avoidance attachment significantly predicted self-compassion while gender roles were a very weak positive correlated with self-compassion.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
บทความหลังผ่านการปรับแก้จากกองบรรณาธิการแล้ว เป็นลิขสิทธ์ของวารสารจิตเวชวิทยาสาร โรงพยาบาลสวนปรุง กรมสุขภาพจิต กระทรวงสาธารณสุข ห้ามเผยแพร่เพื่อประโยชน์ทางการค้าโดยไม่ได้รับอนุญาต แต่อนุญาตให้เผยแพร่บทความดังกล่าวเพื่อประโยชน์ทางการศึกษาแก่ประชาชนทั่วไป ทั้งนี้กองบรรณาธิการไม่จำเป็นต้องเห็นด้วยกับบทความหรือข้อคิดเห็นใดๆ ที่ปรากฏในวารสารสวนปรุง
Department of Mental Health. Telephone tumultuous, mental health hotline more than 1 hundred thousand people 40% are sex calls. 2017 [Available from: https://www.dmh.go. th/news-dmh/view.asp?id=27353. (in Thai)
Department of Mental Health. Department of Mental Health reveals survey of Thai teenagers attaching happiness to lovers. 2018 Available from: https://www.dmh.go.th/news -dmh/view.asp?id=27571. (in Thai)
Santrock JW. Adolescence. 14th ed. New York: McGraw-Hil; 2013.
Neff KD. Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self Identity. 2003;2(2):85-101.
Neff KD, Kirkpatrick KL, Rude SS. Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning. J Res Pers. 2007;41(1):139-54.
Leary MR, Tate EB, Adams CE, Allen AB, Hancock J. Self-compassion and reactions to unpleasant self-relevant events: The implications of treating oneself kindly. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2007;92(5):887-904.
Neff KD. The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self Identity. 2003;2(3):223-50.
Neff KD, Germer CK. A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self-compassion program. J Clin Psychol. 2013;69(1):28-44.
Raes F. Rumination and worry as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depression and anxiety. Pers Individ Dif. 2010;48(6):757-61.
MacBeth A, Gumley A. Exploring compassion: A meta-analysis of the association between self-compassion and psychopathology. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012;32(6):545-52.
Homan KJ. Self-compassion and psychological well-being in older adults. J Adult Dev. 2016;23(2):111-9.
Sun X, Chan DW, Chan L-k. Self-compassion and psychological well-being among adolescents in Hong Kong: Exploring gender differences. Pers Individ Dif. 2016;101:288-92.
Zessin U, Dickhäuser O, Garbade S. The relationship between self-compassion and well-being: A meta-analysis. Appl Psychol Health Well Being. 2015;7(3):340-64.
American Psychological Association and National Association of School Psychologists. Resolution on gender and sexual orientation diversity in children and adolescents in schools 2015. Available from: http://www.apa.org/about/policy/orientation-diversity.aspx.
Yarnell LM, Neff KD, Davidson OA, Mullarkey M. Gender differences in self-compassion: Examining the role of gender role orientation. Mindfulness (N Y). 2018:1-17.
Bem SL. Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing. Psychol Rev. 1981; 88(4):354-64.
Bowlby J. A secure base. New York: Basic Books; 1988.
Fraley RC, Shaver PR. Adult romantic attachment: Theoretical developments, emerging controversies, and unanswered questions. Rev Gen Psychol. 2000;4(2):132-54.
Mackintosh K, Power K, Schwannauer M, Chan SWY. The relationships between self-compassion, attachment and interpersonal problems in clinical patients with mixed anxiety and depression and emotional distress. Mindfulness (N Y). 2017;9(3):961-71.
Moreira H, Carona C, Silva N, Nunes J, Canavarro MC. Exploring the link between maternal attachment-related anxiety and avoidance and mindful parenting: The mediating role of self-compassion. Psychol Psychother. 2016 12;89(4):369-84.
Raque-Bogdan TL, Piontkowski S, Hui K, Ziemer KS, Garriott PO. Self-compassion as a mediator between attachment anxiety and body appreciation: An exploratory model. Body Image. 2016;19:28-36.
Wei M, Liao KY-H, Ku T-Y, Shaffer PA. Attachment, self-compassion, empathy, and subjective well-being among college students and community adults. J Personal. 2011;79 (1):191-221.
Hoffman RM. The measurement of masculinity and femininity: Historical perspective and implications for counseling. J Couns Dev. 2001;79(4):472-85.
Bem SL. The measurement of psychological androgyny. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1974; 42(2):155-62.
Leangsuksant T. The multilevel structural equation model of therapeutic alliance [Dissertation]. Bangkok: Faculty of Psychology Chulalongkorn University; 2018. (in Thai)
Fraley RC, Waller NG, Brennan KA. An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000;78(2):350-65.
Pornkosonsirilert T, Audboon S, Laemsak O. The relationship among self-compassion, stress, self-efficacy, subjective well-being and school burnout in high school students: Senior project psychology. Bangkok: Faculty of Psychology, Chulalongkorn University; 2017. (in Thai)
Raes F, Pommier E, Nef KD, Gucht DV. Construction and factorial validation of a short form of the Self-Compassion Scale. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2011;18:250-5.
Patzak A, Kollmayer M, Schober B. Buffering impostor feelings with kindness: The mediating role of self-compassion between gender-role orientation and the impostor phenomenon. Front Psychol. 2017;8:1289.
Bowlby J. Attachment and loss: Vol. 2. Separation: Anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books; 1973.
Brennan KA, Clark CL, Shaver PR. Self-report measurement of adult attachment: An integrative overview. In: Simpson JA, Rholes WS, editors. Attachment theory and close relationships. New York: Guilford Press; 1998. p.46-76.
Jiang Y, You J, Zheng X, Lin M-P. The qualities of attachment with significant others and self-compassion protect adolescents from non suicidal self-injury. Sch Psychol Q. 2017;32(2):143.
Neff KD, McGehee P. Self-compassion and psychological resilience among adolescents and young adults. Self Identity. 2010;9(3):225-40.