Effects of self-medication reasons, television advertisements, and pharmaceutical professionals' roles on self-medication practices 10.55131/jphd/2023/210215

Main Article Content

Agus Susanto
Heni Purwantiningrum
Meliyana Perwita Sari

Abstract

Self-medication has become increasingly common in society, and it is crucial to provide reliable information and emphasize the role of pharmacists in dispensing information to ensure that self-medication is carried out safely. This study aimed to analyse the reasons for self-medication, the influence of television advertisements, and the role of pharmacists in self-medication. The research used a descriptive-analytic approach with a cross-sectional design. The study involved 350 adult participants who were purposively selected in Tegal City, Central Java, Indonesia. Data were collected using a questionnaire and analysed using SPSS, employing univariate and bivariate analyses. The Chi-Square test was used to investigate the relationship between variables, with a significance level of 0.05. The findings showed that the primary reasons for self-medication were minor illnesses (63.1%), complete TV advertisements (86.3%), active involvement of pharmacists (68.9%), and good self-medication practices (73.1%). The study revealed that there was a significant relationship between the reasons for self-medication (p=0.032) and the role of pharmacists (p=0.002) in self-medication practices. In conclusion, the study found that self-medication practices were good, but pharmacists should be more active in providing information to clients to enhance the quality of self-medication. To achieve this, pharmacists need to play a more significant role in promoting appropriate self-medication practices by providing appropriate information on the safe use of medications. Moreover, health authorities should develop policies to regulate the advertising of over-the-counter drugs, emphasizing the risks of inappropriate use of medications through the media.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Agus Susanto, Heni Purwantiningrum, Meliyana Perwita Sari. Effects of self-medication reasons, television advertisements, and pharmaceutical professionals’ roles on self-medication practices: 10.55131/jphd/2023/210215. J Public Hlth Dev [Internet]. 2023 May 8 [cited 2024 Apr. 13];21(2):179-88. Available from: https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/AIHD-MU/article/view/263500
Section
Original Articles
Author Biographies

Agus Susanto, Department of Pharmacy, Politeknik Harapan Bersama, Tegal City, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Department of Pharmacy, Politeknik Harapan Bersama, Tegal City, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Heni Purwantiningrum, Department of Pharmacy, Politeknik Harapan Bersama, Tegal City, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Department of Pharmacy, Politeknik Harapan Bersama, Tegal City, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Meliyana Perwita Sari, Department of Pharmacy, Politeknik Harapan Bersama, Tegal City, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Department of Pharmacy, Politeknik Harapan Bersama, Tegal City, Central Java Province, Indonesia

References

Chautrakarn S, Khumros W, Phutrakool P. Self-Medication With Over-the-counter Medicines Among the Working Age Population in Metropolitan Areas of Thailand. Front Pharmacol. 2021;12:726643. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.726643.

World Health Organization. Guidelines for the Regulatory Assessment of Medicinal Products for use in Self-Medication. Geneva: WHO; 2000.

Rauf Z, Putra DP, Masrul M, Semiarty R. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Families Practices in Selecting, Obtaining, Using, Storing, and Disposing of Medicines on Self-Medication Behavior in Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021;9(E):1570–7.

Janatolmakan M, Abdi A, Andayeshgar B, Soroush A, Khatony A. The Reasons for Self-Medication from the Perspective of Iranian Nursing Students: A Qualitative Study. Nurs Res Pract. 2022;2022:2960768. doi: 10.1155/2022/2960768.

Balitbang Kemenkes Republik Indonesia. Hasil Utama Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2018. Jakarta; 2018.

Kassie AD, Bifftu BB, Mekonnen HS. Self-medication practice and associated factors among adult household members in Meket district, Northeast Ethiopia, 2017. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2018;19(1).

Kassie AD, Bifftu BB, Mekonnen HS. Self-medication practice and associated factors among adult household members in Meket district, Northeast Ethiopia, 2017. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2018;19(1):15. doi: 10.1186/s40360-018-0205-6.

Pusat Informasi Obat dan Makanan. Menuju Swamedikasi yang Aman. InfoPOM. 2014;15(1).

Saha A, Marma KKS, Rashid A, Tarannum N, Das S, Chowdhury T, et al. Risk factors associated with self-medication among the indigenous communities of Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. PLOS ONE. 2022;17(6):e0269622. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0269622.

Osemene KP, Lamikanra A. A Study of the Prevalence of Self-Medication Practice among University Students in Southwestern Nigeria. Trop J Pharm Res. 2012;11(4):683–9.

Ocan M, Bwanga F, Bbosa GS, Bagenda D, Waako P, Ogwal-Okeng J, et al. Patterns and predictors of self-medication in northern Uganda. PLOS ONE. 2014;9(3):e92323. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092323.

Siraj EA, Yayehrad AT, Kassaw AT, Kassahun D, Solomon E, Abdela H, et al. Self-Medication Prevalence and Factors Associated with Knowledge and Attitude Towards Self-Medication Among Undergraduate Health Science Students at GAMBY Medical and Business College, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2022;16:3157-72. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S390058.

Rutter P. Role of community pharmacists in patients' self-care and self-medication. Integr Pharm Res Pract. 2015;4:57-65. doi: 10.2147/IPRP.S70403.

Poudyal A, Nepal S. Self-medication practice and associated socio-demographic variables among adult in Morang district of Miklajung rural municipality. Int J Community Med Public Heal. 2021;8(2):570–5.

Shalini A, Logaraj M. Prevalence and determinants of self medication use among the adult population residing in a sub urban areas near Chennai, Tamil Nadu. J Family Med Prim Care. 2021;10(5):1835-8. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1615_20.

Aprilia D, Hidayati IR, Yunita SL. Factors Influencing the Behavior of Self-Medication With Diarrhea Drug. KnE Med. 2022;2(3):586–97.

Alves RF, Precioso J, Becoña E. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of self-medication among university students in Portugal: A cross-sectional study. Nordisk Alkohol Nark. 2021;38(1):50-65. doi: 10.1177/1455072520965017.

Ratnayake U, Kumanan T, Nadarajah RK. Factors Associated with Antihypertensive Medication Adherence among Diabetic Patients with Coexisting Hypertension in a Tertiary Care Centre from a Low Middle Income South Asian Country. J Patient Saf Qual Improv. 2021;9(1):29–39.

Hasan S, Farghadani G, AlHaideri SK, Fathy MA, Hasan S, Farghadani G, et al. Pharmacist Opportunities to Improve Public Self-Medicating Practices in the UAE. Pharmacology & Pharmacy. 2016;7(11):459–71. doi: 10.4236/pp.2016.711052.

Cavaco AM, Sozen-Sahne B, Ulutas-Deniz E, Yegenoglu S. Self-medication and non-prescription drug counseling: Illustrating profession uncertainty within Turkish pharmacy practice. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2018;14(8):718–26.

Amanda Fitriana R, Dwi Utami A, Priyanda ERP, Lestari O, Handayani F. Description of Pharmacist Communication In Self-Medication. Int J Soc Serv Res. 2021;1(1):25–9.

Mulyatingsih E. Riset Terapan Bidang Pendidikan dan Teknik. Nuryanto A, editor. Yogyakarta: UNY Press; 2011.

Amuzie CI, Kalu KU, Izuka M, Nwamoh UN, Emma-Ukaegbu U, Odini F, et al. Prevalence, pattern and predictors of self-medication for COVID-19 among residents in Umuahia, Abia State, Southeast Nigeria: policy and public health implications. J Pharm Policy Pract. 2022;15(1):34.

Berkman ND, Sheridan SL, Donahue KE, Halpern DJ, Crotty K. Low health literacy and health outcomes: an updated systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(2):97–107.

Vidyavati S, Sneha A, Kamarudin J, Katti S. Self Medication-Reasons, Risks and Benefits. Int J Healthc Biomed Res. 2016;4(4):21–4.

Shaghagi A, Asadi M, Allahverdipour H. Predictors of Self-Medication Behavior: A Systematic Review. Iran J Public Heal. 2014;43(2):136–46.

Tkg D, Kct A, Cruz ANO D, Vera DR, Cas L, Jeg L, et al. Impact of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertisement on the buying behavior of over-the-counter drugs in Cabanatuan city, Nueva Ecija. GSC Biol Pharm Sci. 2022;2022(02):196–205. doi: 10.30574/gscbps.2022.20.2.0310

Harahap NA, Khairunnisa K, Tanuwijaya J. Pengetahuan Pasien dan Rasionalitas Swamedikasi di Tiga Apotek Kota Panyabungan. J Sains Farm Klin. 2017;3(2):186–92.

Febriyani F, Candradewi SF, Hidayati A. Pengaruh Iklan Obat Diare di Televisi Terhadap Keputusan dan Ketepatan Swamedikasi. J Syifa Sci Clin Res. 2022;4(1):128–40.

Rachmawati H. Pengaruh Iklan Obat Flu di Televisi terhadap Pemilihan Obat Secara Swamedikasi pada Masyarakat di Malang. Farmasains J Farm dan Ilmu Kesehat. 2012;1(2).

Sánchez-Sánchez E, Fernández-Cerezo FL, Díaz-Jimenez J, Rosety-Rodriguez M, Díaz AJ, Ordonez FJ, et al. Consumption of over-the-Counter Drugs: Prevalence and Type of Drugs. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(11):5530.

Schweim H, Ullmann M. Media influence on risk competence in self-medication and self-treatment. Ger Med Sci. 2015;13:Doc10.

Ershadpour R, Kargar Z, Rajput MY. A review of the impact of commercial drug advertising on the emergence of self-medication phenomenon. J Fundam Appl Sci. 2018;4(1):9–10.

Susilo AI, Muslim Z. Community Behavior Study Regarding Drug Purchases at Bengkulu City Pharmacies in 2021. SANITAS J Teknol dan Seni Kesehat. 2022;13(1):33–43.

Singh DK, Patnaik BCM, Satpathy I. Internal Dynamics of Self –Medication (SM). J Med Chem Sci. 2022;5(3):321–34.

Shrivastava B, Bajracharya O, Shakya R. Prioritizing intervention measures to prevent inappropriate self-medication practices using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Explor Res Clin Soc Pharm. 2022;5:100117.