Practices, knowledge, and attitude toward dispensing antibiotics without a prescription in Iraqi pharmacies 10.55131/jphd/2023/210102

Main Article Content

Ali Mohammed Abd Alridha
Karrar Mohammed Hasan Al-Gburi
Sarah Kadhim Abbood
Alaa Yasir
Dhuha Hussam

Abstract

Dispensing antibiotics without a prescription (DAWRx) is a potential threat to global public health and can lead to antimicrobial abuse and resistance development. Further research is required to examine the characteristics of DAWRx practice in Iraq. This study aimed to investigate the practices of DAWRx in Iraqi community pharmacies. A semi-structured, validated, pilot-tested online questionnaire was used to conduct a descriptive cross-sectional study in March 2020 among the members of the Iraqi Pharmacist Syndicate. The questionnaire contained five sections: demographics, antibiotic dispensing knowledge, and the prevalence, sources, and characteristic features of DAWRx practices. The results are presented using descriptive statistics and significant associations were reported. A total of 403 respondents completed the questionnaire and, of them, 363 were analyzed. Despite having a satisfactory knowledge of dispensing (64.7%), the practice of DAWRx was prevalent (98.3%). DAWRx was reported based on the pharmacies’ recommendation (30.58%) and patients’ request for antibiotics. Adults and pediatric patients received antibiotics from pharmacies for various conditions. Injectable antibiotics were also dispensed without a prescription (mainly ceftriaxone, n = 51/72). Moreover, the prevalence and the daily number of antibiotics dispensed were significantly associated with sex, pharmacy attitude toward DAWRx, and DAWRx upon patients’ request. A significant association was noted between the knowledge of dispensing inquiries and the prevalence of and attitude toward DAWRx (p < 0.05). Impactful intervention strategies based on patterns identified in this study should be developed to improve antibiotic dispensing in community pharmacies and safeguard public health from the adverse effects of antimicrobial resistance.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Alridha AMA, Al-Gburi KMH, Abbood SK, Yasir A, Hussam D. Practices, knowledge, and attitude toward dispensing antibiotics without a prescription in Iraqi pharmacies: 10.55131/jphd/2023/210102. J Public Hlth Dev [Internet]. 2022 Dec. 9 [cited 2024 Apr. 20];21(1):15-31. Available from: https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/AIHD-MU/article/view/260342
Section
Original Articles
Author Biographies

Ali Mohammed Abd Alridha, The University of Kufa, Faculty of Pharmacy – Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. Iraq, Annajaf Governorate, Kufa city, Kufa University Campus, Iraq

The University of Kufa, Faculty of Pharmacy – Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. Iraq, Annajaf Governorate, Kufa city, Kufa University Campus, Iraq

Karrar Mohammed Hasan Al-Gburi, The University of Kufa, Faculty of Pharmacy – Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. Iraq, Annajaf Governorate, Kufa city, Kufa University Campus, Iraq

The University of Kufa, Faculty of Pharmacy – Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. Iraq, Annajaf Governorate, Kufa city, Kufa University Campus, Iraq

Sarah Kadhim Abbood, The University of Kufa, Faculty of Pharmacy – Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. Iraq, Annajaf Governorate, Kufa city, Kufa University Campus, Iraq

The University of Kufa, Faculty of Pharmacy – Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. Iraq, Annajaf Governorate, Kufa city, Kufa University Campus, Iraq

Alaa Yasir, The University of Kufa, Faculty of Pharmacy – Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. Iraq, Annajaf Governorate, Kufa city, Kufa University Campus, Iraq

The University of Kufa, Faculty of Pharmacy – Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. Iraq, Annajaf Governorate, Kufa city, Kufa University Campus, Iraq

Dhuha Hussam, Pharmacy BSc. Candidates, University of Kufa, Faculty of Pharmacy, Annajaf Governorate, Kufa city, Kufa University Campus, Iraq

Pharmacy BSc. Candidates, University of Kufa, Faculty of Pharmacy, Annajaf Governorate, Kufa city, Kufa University Campus, Iraq

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